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Business at work


What I need to do?
In this coursework I need to produce a detailed business report on one
mediumsized or large business. In investigating a chosen Case Study I must
comment and analyze each of the following aspects of the Business:
Communication Channels
Quality Assurance and Control
Adding Value
I need to examine how these factors interrelate to affect the success of
the business. Also I need to explain how quality assurance and control
systems help the business to add value to its products and services.

As example for my investigation I chose Tesco plc., because Tesco is good
example of public limited company and Tesco  is a most popular
supermarkets network in UK.

How businesses are classified?
I can classify the business by form, by industrial sector, by ownership, by
objective, by size and by location or market.

                            Forms of businesses.
Oldest, simplest, most common form of business  easy to set up enterprise.
A sole trader exists where a single person owns a business. This is very
common form of organization. Over recent years, the number of sole traders
has grown significantly. There are several reasons for this trend including
more opportunities to work for firms on consultancy basis and government
support for self-employment. Most sole traders work on their own .
Initial capital  savings or borrowed. Very common in retailing, service
    - Easy to set up with little capital and few legal formalities
    - The owner controls the business - quick decision making
    - Personal contact with customers
    - All profits belong to owner
    - Satisfaction, motivation, interest in Working for yourself
    - Business affairs are private  except far tax returns
    - Unlimited liability for any loss or debts incurred: owner is
      responsible or liable
    - Cannot Buy in bulk and enjoy Economies of scale
    - Expansions limited by available capital
    - Division of labour is difficult
    - Continuity a problem
Good example of sole trader is T. Regan Plant Hire.

The minimum membership is two partners and the maximum twenty.
Must be at least one general partner who is fully liable for all debts and
obligations of the practice. Sleeping partner  not active. Partnership
exist mainly in the professions  doctors, lawyers, accountants and
surveyors frequently run their organization in the form of partnership.
Partnerships normally operate in local or regional markets, though advanced
in information technology are allowing many professions to offer their
services more widely.
    - Easy to set up
    - More capital with extra partners
    - Division of labour  specialization
    - Responsibility can be shared e.g. long working hours redused
    - Partners have unlimited liability
    - Disagreement can cause problems  no sole decision  maker or owner
    - Lack of capital may still hinder expansion
    - Profits must be shared among all co-owners
    - Problem of continuity
Good example of partnership is Rolls-Royce.

A company is defined as an association of persons that contributes money
(or equivalent value in goods and assets) to a common stock, employ it in
some trade or business, and share the profit or loss arising out of that
business. Join stock companies are governed by and registered under the
Companies Act 1985. A company has a separate legal identity form its
members and can sue in its own name. There are two types of company: public
companies and private companies. Both require minimum two shareholders, and
there is no upper limit on the number of shareholders. All companies enjoy
the benefit of limited liability. Capital is raised by selling shares.

Shares can be transferred privately. All must agree.Private limited
companies are suitable for small and medium-sized operations. This type of
business organization is particularly suitable for family firms and for
small enterprises involving just a handful of people.
Private limited companies find it easier to attract capital because
investors have the benefit of limited liability and this access to finance
makes it simpler for the business to grow.
    - Shareholders have limited liability
    - More capital can be raised
    - Control of company held within the firm
    - Shares are transferable
    - Profit are shared out among more people
    - Legal proceduresinvolve time
    - Not allowed to cell shares to the public
    - Restricts amount of capital raised
    - Difficult to find a buyer if shareholder wishes to leave
Good example of privet limited company is Littlewoods Ltd.

The second type of limited company tends to be larger and is called a
public limited company. There are about 1.2 million registered limited
companies in the UK, but only 1 per cent of them are public limited
companies. However they contribute with far more to national output and
employ far more people than private limited companies.
Good example of public limited company is Tesco plc. which I going to

Co-operatives are organised on a regional basis. Members can purchase
shares and each member has one vote at the Annual General Meeting, no
matter how many shares are owned. Members elect a board of directors who
appoint managers to run day to day
business. The Co-operative is run in the interests of its customers and
part of any surplus is distributed to members as dividend. Shares are not
sold on the stock exchange, which limits the amount of money that can be
Good example of co-operative is CRS (Co-operative Retail Society).

Charities are organisations with very specialised aims. They exist to raise
money for good causes and draw attention to the needs of disadvantaged
groups in society. They also rise awareness and pass comment on issues,
such as cold weather payments, which relate to the elderly.
Charities rely on donations for their revenue. They also organise fund
raising events such as fetes, jumble sales, sponsored activities and
ruffles. A number of  charities run business ventures. Charities are
generally run according to business principles. They aim to minimise costs,
market themselves and employ staff. Most staff are volunteers, but some of
the larger charities employ professionals. In the larger charities a lot of
administration is necessary to deal with huge quantities of correspondence
and handle charity funds. Provided charities are registered, they are not
required to pay tax. In addition, business can offset any charitable
donations they make against tax. This helps charities when raising funds.

Good example of charity is  British Red Cross.

A franchise is not a form of business organisation as such, but a way of
managing and growing a business. Franchising covers a variety of
arrangements under which the owner of a businnes idea grants other
individuals or groups to trade using that name or idea. However, it is
important to realise that a franchise can trade as a sole trader, a
partnership or a private limited company. The legal form of business that
is chosen will depend on the capital needed, the degree of risk, the number
of people having a stake in the franchise and the personal preferences of
the owner. The person or organisation selling the idea (the franchisor)
gains a number of advantages from the process of franchising. The
franchisor normally receives a share of the profits generated by the
franchise. Usually the franchisee benefits by being granted rights to an
exclusive territory and support from the franchiser in the form of staff
training, advertising and promotion.
Franchising is a cheap and quick way to set up your own business. By the
year 2004, it is estimated that 70 per cent of all new retail outlets  in
the US will be franchises.
Good example of franchise is McDonalds.

                             Industrial sectors.
PRIMARY  extractive organisations.
SECONDARY  manufacturing organisations.
TERTIARY  providing-services organisations.
PUBLIC SECTOR: Civil service, Government departments, Public corporations,
Local Authorities.
PRIVATE SECTOR:  Sole traders, Partnerships, Limited companies, Charities,
Co-operatives, Franchises.
      -     To make a profit
    -  To Break  even
   -     To provide service
    - Small
    - Medium
    - Large

    - Local
    - Regional
    - National
    - Multinational

                                 Tesco plc.


Tesco was founded in 1924. Over the last seventy years, as the food
retailing market has changed, the company has grown and developed,
responding to new opportunities and pioneering many innovations. Today it
is Britains leading food retailer.
The founder of Tesco was Sir Jack Cohen. He used his gratuity from his Army
service in the First World War to start selling groceries in Londons East
End markets in 1919. The brand name of Tesco first appeared on packets of
tea in the 1920s. The name was based on the initials of T.E. Stockwell, a
partner in the firm of tea suppliers, and the first two letters of Cohen.
The first store to be opened was in 1929 in Burnt Oak, Edgware.
The business prospered and grew in the years between the wars. In 1947
Tesco Stores (Holdings) Ltd was floated on the Stock Exchange, with a share
price of 75p. The price at the beginning of March 1998 was around 515p.
Self-service supermarkets started in the USA in the 1930s during the
depression. They soon realised that by selling a wider variety and larger
volume of stock and employing fewer staff they could offer lower prices to
the public.
Self-service stores came to Britain after the Second World War, and Jack
Cohen opened the first Tesco self-service store in St Albans in 1948.
In 1956 the first Tesco self-service supermarket was opened in a converted
cinema in Maldon. By the early 1960s, Tesco had become a familiar name. As
well as groceries, the stores sold fresh food, clothing and household
goods. Tesco stores were located in the high streets of many towns. The
Tesco store which opened in Leicester in 1961 had 16,500 square feet of
selling space and went into the Guinness Book of Records as the largest
store in Europe.
By buying in bulk and keeping costs down, Tesco should have been able to
sell at very competitive prices to its customers. Until 1964, however,
suppliers were, by law, able to insist that retailers charged a set price
for their products (the system known as Resale Price Maintenance) which
meant that it was difficult to reduce prices. The intention was to protect
small shops against the lower prices that big retailers could offer their
Tesco introduced trading stamps so that it could bring lower prices to its
customers. Customers collected stamps as they purchased their groceries and
other items. When they had collected enough stamps to fill a book, they
could exchange the book for cash or other gifts. Other retailers soon
copied Tesco. Sir Jack was one of the leaders in persuading Parliament to
abolish Resale Price Maintenance in 1964. After this, Tesco continued to
offer trading stamps until 1977.
 Apart from opening its own new stores, Tesco bought existing chains of
stores. In 1960 it took over a chain of 212 stores in the north of England
and added another 144 stores in 1964 and 1965. In 1968 the Victor Value
chain became part of the company.
Tesco introduced the concept of a superstore in 1967 when it opened a
90,000 square feet store in Westbury, Wiltshire. The superstore was a new
concept in retailing - a very large unit on the outskirts of a town,
designed to provide ease of access to customers coming by car or public
transport. The term superstore was first actually used when Tesco opened
its store in Crawley, West Sussex in 1968.
By 1970, Tesco was a household name. Its reputation had been built on
providing basic groceries at very competitive prices; the slogan Pile it
high and sell it cheap was the title of Sir Jack Cohens autobiography.
But as people were becoming better off, they were starting to look for more
expensive luxury items as well as everyday household and food products. In
the late 1970s the company decided to broaden its customer base and make
its stores more attractive to a wider range of customers. Many of the
older, high street stores were closed and the company concentrated on
developing bigger out-of-town superstores. The superstores sold a broader
range of goods, and had wider aisles and better lighting. While still
offering very competitive prices, the emphasis was now on quality, customer
service and a customer-friendly environment. In 1974, the company developed
filling stations at its major sites, selling petrol at very competitive
prices. In line with its new image, Tesco finally stopped giving trading
stamps in 1977, at the same time introducing a price cutting campaign under
the banner 'Checkout at Tesco' which proved to be a major success.
In one year in the late 1970s, the Tesco market share increased from 7% to
12%, and in 1979 its annual turnover reached 1 billion for the first time.

During the 1980s, Tesco continued to build new superstores, opening its
100th in 1985. In 1987 it announced a 500 million programme to build
another 29 stores. By 1991, the popularity of Tesco petrol filling stations
at its superstores had made the company Britains biggest independent
petrol retailer.
In 1985 Tesco introduced its Healthy Eating initiative. Its own brand
products carried nutritional advice and many were branded with the Healthy
Eating symbol. The company was the first major retailer to emphasise the
nutritional value of its own brands, to customers.

By 1990, Tesco was a very different company from what it had been 20 years
before. The Tesco superstore offered customers a very wide range of goods,
a pleasant shopping environment, free car parking and an emphasis on
customer service. Although many financial experts had not believed that the
company could so radically change its image, the new approach saw sales and
profits rise consistently. Existing customers took advantage of greater
choice, and new customers discovered that Tesco could successfully match
the offer of any of its retail competitors.
In the 1990s, the company built on its success by developing new store
concepts and new customer-focused initiatives. In 1992, it opened the first
Tesco Metro, a city centre store meeting the needs of workers, high street
shoppers and the local community. This was followed by Tesco Express,
combining a petrol filling station with a local convenience store to give
local communities a selected range of products. The company also expanded
into Scotland when it acquired a chain of 57 stores from William Low.
Tesco broke new ground in food retailing by introducing, in 1995, the first
customer loyalty card, which offered benefits to regular shoppers whilst
helping the company discover more about its customers needs. Other
customer services followed, including home shopping for those who hadnt
the time to visit a superstore, Tesco Direct for catalogue shoppers and the
Tesco Babyclub for new parents. Currently, the company is adding financial
services to its provision for customers.
By 1995, Tesco had become the largest food retailer in the UK.
In the 1990s, Tesco started to expand its operations outside the UK. In
Eastern Europe, it has met growing consumer aspirations by developing
stores in Poland, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic.
Closer to home, in 1997 Tesco purchased 109 stores in Ireland, which gave
the company a market leadership both north and south of the border.

                          Tesco Chairmen 1947-1998
Sir Jack Cohen 1947-1979

Sir Leslie Porter 1979-1985

Sir Ian MacLaurin (Lord MacLaurin from 1996) 1985-1998

John Gardiner 1997

Chief Executive Terry Leahy 1997

The letters plc at the end of its name distinguishes a public limited
company from a private limited company. Most of  Britains famous
businesses such as Marks and Spencer, ICI, BP, and Manchester United are
public limited companies. All companies with share prices quoted n the
London Stock Exchange are public limited companies.
To become a public limited company, a business must have an issued share
capital of at least  50,000 and the company must have received at least 25
per cent of the nominal value of the shares. Public limited companies must
      . be a company limited by shares
      . have a memorandum of association with a separate clause stating
        that it is a public company
      . publish an annual report and balance sheet
      . ensure that its shares are freely transferable  they can be bought
        and sold.
      . All members have limited liability.
      . The firm continues to trade if one of the owners dies.
      . Huge amount of money can be raised fom the sale of shares to the
      . Production costs may be lower as firm may gain economies of scale.
      . Because of their size plcs can often dominate the market.
      . It becomes easier to raise finance as financial institutions are
        more willing to lend to plcs.
      . The setting up costs can be very expensive  running into millions
        of pounds in some cases.
      . Since anyone can buy their shares, it is possible for an outside
        interest to take control of the company.
      . All of the companys accounts can be inspected by members of the
        public. Competitors may be able to use some of this information to
        their advantage. They have to publish more information than private
        limited companies.
      . Because of their size they are not able to deal with their
        customers at a personal level.
      . The way they operate is controlled by various Company Acts which
        aim to protect shareholders.
      . There may b a divorce of ownership and control which might lead to
        the interests of the owners being ignored to some extent.
      . It is argued that many of these companies are inflexible due to
        their size. For example they find change difficult to cope with.
Tesco plc. is large, private sector organisation. As it is providing-
service organisation I can classify it as tertiary sector organisation.
Tesco plc. is a national company, but it is becoming to multinational. Main
objective is to make a profit.
As Tesco is a limited company that means all owners have limited liability.
If a company has debts, the owners can only lose the money they have
invested in the firm.
Main source of finance is selling shares and borrowing from the banks.
Tesco has a thousands of owners, every man who has any shares is owner; but
these people cant control the company, so company has a board of directors
and chairman who control the company.
Tesco has a heavy programme of capital expenditure, investing in new stores
and upgrading existing ones. In the year ending 28th February 1998, the
group capital expenditure was 841 million, compared to 758 million in the
year ending 28th February 1997. This 841 million was divided into 737
million spend in the Great Britain, 63 million in Ireland, north and
south, and 41 million in Europe. Tesco anticipates that in the 1998-9
financial year, capital spending will rise to about 950 million, with most
of the extra spending being concentrated in Ireland and Central Europe.
Profit is also distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends.
For example, in 1998 the profits from Tesco after tax were 505 million.
About 50% of the profits were distributed to shareholders as dividends.
Subsequently approximately 250 million was retained by the company for
investment in new stores and improving their service to customers.

                         Objectives of the business.
The objectives of the business can vary enormously A charitys overriding
objective might be to alleviate poverty in the developing world; on the
other hand many companies major objective is to generate the maximum
profits possible. An organisations mission statement gives an indication
of the purpose of the business and dovetails with the objectives the
organisation set itself.

                             Mission statement.
Many organisations attempt to express the purpose of their being within a
few sentences. The mission statements are intended to provide a sense of
common purpose to direct and stimulate the organisation. This statement
represents the vision or mission of the organisation. Mission statements
change over time to reflect the changing competitive nature of the markets
in which business sell.
  Mission statement normally set out to answer the following questions:
    . What business is the organisation in?
    . Who is to be served?
    . What benefits are to be provided?
    . How are consumers to be satisfied?

Business objectives are medium- to long-term goals or targets that provide
a sense of direction to the business. Objectives are normally measurable
and have a stated timescale.
 Company may have a number of objectives. In general, the objectives
pursued by a business tend to vary according to its size, ownership and
legal structure.
Figure 1.1 illustrates the interrelationship between a companys mission
statement and its objectives.

        Figure 1.1: The hierarchy of objectives

The goals pursued by any business can be separated into primary and
secondary objectives.
    . Primary objectives are those that must be achieved if the business is
      to survive and be successful. These relate to issues such as profit
      levels and market share.
    . Secondary objectives tend to measure the efficiency of the
      organisation. They may affect the chances of success, but only in the
      long term. Examples include administrative efficiency and labour
      turnover rates.
                            Profit maximisation.
Profit maximisation one of the most important objective for companies which
are owned by shareholders. Profit, at is simplest, refers to the extent to
which revenues exceed costs, so profit maximisation occurs when the
difference between sales revenue and total cost is greatest.

Survival is an important objective for many businesses. It is particularly
important when businesses are vulnerable such as:
    . during their first few years of trading
    . during periods of recession or intense competition
    . at a time of crisis such as a hostile takeover.
Most recently established businesses have survival as an objective.

                      Increasing sales or market share.
Growth increases the scale of a business, resulting in higher levels of
output and more sales. Many businesses pursue growth strategies because
their managers believe that this is essential for survival. If a firm
grows, it might be able to attract more customers, earn higher profits and
begin to establish itself in the market.
Growth offers:
    . increased returns for the owners of the business
    . higher salaries for employees of the business
    . a wider range of products for the businesss existing and potential
Growth can be important target for managers. It is increasingly common for
managers pay packages to be a combination of shares and salary.

                   Providing social or community service.
A number of organisations provide services to the community. These
organisations are part of the public sector  they are managed, directly or
indirectly, on behalf of the government  yet they are a form of business.
Their overriding objective is to provide the best positive service to the
local community.

                    Charitable and non-profit objectives.
Charities have a high profile in the UK. Charities have a number of clear
    . to rise the publics awareness of the cause that thy support.
    . To rise funds to support their projects.
Charities trade with the intention of earning as much revenue as possible
to spend on their particular causes.

                      Producing high quality products.
Just as many businesses seek to provide high quality service, a large
number of businesses also have the provision of high quality product as an
important objective. Acquiring reputation for top quality can allow
businesses to charge a premium price and to enjoy higher profits.
Reputations for supplying quality products are jealously guarded.

Tesco is committed to retaining its position as the UKs largest
supermarket retailer. Customer feedback forms, in-store discussion groups
and a continuous analysis of sales figures has enabled Tesco to recognise
the importance of the key principles of price, quality and service.
The company owes its success to its emphasis on meeting changing customer
needs through service and innovation, while maintaining its commitment to
value and quality.
 Underlying its business success is a commitment to upholding certain
values and working and working principles and seeking continuous
improvement in its ethical performance.
Companies are part of the society in which they operate and must take note
of the interests and concerns of many different groups. For Tesco these
includes its customers, its stuff, its shareholders, its suppliers and
people in the local communities close to its stores and in the world
beyond. Each group has expectations of the company which Tesco has to meet
and manage if it is to maintain its position as a leading and successful
 Tesco must serve its customers by providing the goods they want and the
service they expect. By meeting customers needs better than its
competitors, Tesco earns profits and creates value for its shareholders.
 Tesco, like other large companies, however, recognises that its wider
reputation depends on other things such as its stuff relations, its
attitude to the environment, its support to the community, and its
relationships with suppliers. Also as a leading food retailer, the company
must ensure that its provides products which are safe to eat or use, as
well as giving customers advice on matters such as healthy diets.

Tescos main business objectives:

    . to provide customers with outstanding, naturally delivered, personal
    . to earn the respect of its stuff for the values and appreciate their
    . to understand customers better than anyone
    . to be competitive even on the basics
    . give customers a broad range of strong relevant promotions in all
      departments of the store
    . give customers what they want under one roof
    . provide an environment that is easy and pleasant to shop in
    . upgrade existing stores to the standards that is expected from Tesco
    . to recognise Tesco has brilliant people, use this strength to make
      customers shopping enjoyable in a way no competitor can
    . use intelligence, scale and technology to deliver unbeatable value to
      customers in everything Tesco does
    . to maximise profits to provide high returns for shareholders
    . to increase sales or market share as much as possible
    . advertising should appeal to all customers in a relevant

Tescos main mission statements:
    . To be worlds best and largest supermarket retailer.
    . Completely increase value for customers, and to earn their time

               How Tesco is going to achieve these objectives?
         What Tesco expects from its staff in order to achieve this?
Tesco staff:
    . Are all retailers, working as a one team.
    . Trust and respect each other.
    . Respect all customers, the community, suppliers and the competition.
    . Strive for personal excellence in everything they do, leaving no stone
      unturned in order to get it right.
    . Are encouraged to take risks, give support and do not blame others.
    . Are rewarded for creating value for customers.
    . Are talked and listened to: and their knowledge is shared, so that it
      can be used.
    . Have fun, celebrate success and learn from failure.

               What is the comment Tesco has to its customers?
Tesco customers want the best possible value for their money. Tesco is
determined to offer its customers quality products, good service,
attractive stores and low prices.
To meet this aims, Tesco:
    . works closely with suppliers to ensure products are of the highest
      quality and are delivered to stores in the best possible condition.
    . makes sure that its staff are committed to giving the best possible
      quality of service.
    . aims to create in its stores an environment which makes shopping easy,
      interesting and comfortable.
For example, in 1993 Tesco introduced Value lines, which offer exceptional
value for money, followed by New Deal Pricing on leading commodities and
brands in 1994. In 1996, Tesco introduced Unbeatable Value with the pledge
that nobody would sell the equivalent product for less price.


                          Organisational functions.
  All organisations require resources to carry out their functions. One way
of judging the success of a business is to compare the resources it uses
with the value of the product that results. For example if it is a small
business running by its owner, for example small shop, so it doesnt need
any workers, large piece of land and big capital, owner can work alone. But
if it is a very large business like car manufacturing so it requires a lot
of workers, very large piece of land and big capital.
                       The resources of the business.
One way of considering the resources used by a business is to classify them
into the factors of production. The main capital of production are capital,
labour and land.

                   - CAPITAL refers to any manufactured product used by the
                     business to make other products. This category
                     therefore includes all machinery, vehicles and office
                     equipment used in businesses. It also includes the
                     companys buildings.
                   - LABOUR is the human resources used by business
                     organisations during production.
                   - LAND  site on which the business is located and
                     natural resources it might use.
                   - ENTERPRISE  owners and shareholders.

                              Functional areas.
All businesses combine factors of production as an essential part of their
production activities. To combine these factors, to engage in production
and to achieve their objectives organisations undertake a number of
functions. The major business functions include:
    . finance
    . production
    . human resources
    . administration
    . research and development
Business requirements for functional areas depends on its size, for example
small business might merge many of these functions within their
administration department, with responsibility in the hand of one or two
people. As a business grows the number of people required to carry out
these functions increases.

                           The financial function.

      Extensive use of IT

                                        Produces standards

                                          cost data

        Customers                    Auditors                       Inland
Revenue and
         (price list)                   (accounts)
Custom & Excise

          to tax liability)

                     Figure 1.3: The financial function

A separate department normally carries out the finance function of the
business. The finance department carries out a number of key activities:
    . records all financial data
    . chases up slow payers
    . collects payments from customers
    . provides information to external bodies
    . analyses costs
    . advises board of directors
    . monitors and analyses financial data
    . advices managers and budget holders

                            Production function.

Production covers all the activities that must be undertaken to make the
firms products, from the receipt, of raw materials through to the output
of the final product. The production function concentrates primarily upon
planning and controlling the various stages of production so that the most
efficient use is made of business resources.
 Production manager responsible for:
    . maintaining supplies of components and raw materials to ensure
      continuous production
    . ensuring that the precise requirements of customers are met
    . monitoring quality to insure that finished products meet the quality
      standards expected by customers
    . using resources  people, machinery and production space  as
      efficiently as possible to make the business competitive in the
      markets in which it trades.

One of the most important issues in production is quality. Modern
businesses compete just as strongly on the quality of their goods and
services as they do on price.
For example it is vital for a washing machine manufacturer to produce a
high-quality product. If the machine is not reliable or does not have a
wide range of functions, customers are more likely to purchase a
competitors product.

     Figure 1.4: The links between the production function and other

                        The human resource function.

Personnel management considers the tasks involved in managing people 
recruitment, selection and so forth  as separate elements. It does not
take into account how these elements can combine to achieve organisational
The personnel management approach makes decisions relating to recruitment,
training and pay systems independently, without considering the impact the
individual decisions have on each other aspects of management and the
achievement of corporate objectives.
Human resources management (HRM) elevates the effective use of a businesss
labour force to an issue to be considered by senior managers as an
essential element of the organisations strategy. This approach has raised
the profile (and salaries) of those employed in human resource management.
The human resources function engages in a number of activities to ensure
employees are utilised affectively. These activities are carried out with
the aim of contributing to the achievement of the businesss objectives.
Workforce plan sets out likely future needs for labour and how these needs
might be met. Achieving the workforce plan involves the human resource
function in a number of day-to-day activities.
    . recruiting employees  both internally and externally
    . training new and existing employees
    . paying salaries
    . dealing with disciplinary matters and grievances
    . overseeing industrial relations, by seeking to avoid disputes and
      maintain  harmonious relations and constant production
    . developing and monitoring an employee appraisal system designed to
      assess performance, set targets for achievement and identify any
      training needs

                Figure 1.5: Developing a human resources plan

                           The marketing function.

The marketing department carries out a wide range of functions on behalf of
the business. Essentially marketing is communications. The marketing
department communicates with a number of groups inside and outside the
business as it carries out its tasks.
Marketing activities:
    . keeping customers satisfied
    . discovering the needs of customers and advising the production
      function accordingly
    . carrying the responsibility for ensuring the effective distribution of
      products to wholesalers and retailers
    . liasing with marketing agencies to provide the necessary expertise
      (small firms)
    . if the firm is an export, the marketing department may have contact
      with government agencies.
Marketing provides the organisation with information about its customers
and its markets. Effective marketing can offer businesses a number of
    . early warning of changes in consumer tastes and fashions through
      regular market research
    . knowledge about competitors and information regarding competitors
    . the means to present the company in a positive light through public
      relations activities
    . allowing the firm to improve the quality of its products by
      coordinating and analysing customer complaints
    . providing a catalyst for growth by forging relationships with
      distributors, retailers and customers in new markets
    . supplying consumers with the products they want and giving high levels
      of customer satisfaction, which might permit a business to charge
      higher prices thereby increasing its profitability.

                        The administration function.

The scope of the administration department varies enormously between
organisations. In a small business the administration function might
incorporate a number of  the functions like finance , personnel and
marketing. However, larger organisations are more likely to operate a
specialist administration department.
A typical administration department has a number of functions:
    . Administration department carries out organisations IT system.
    . Clerical and support service. Information processing, data processing,
      filing and reception services can be provided to all areas of the
    . Security and maintenance. These services are essential to the smooth
      running of the business and to the effective operation of other
      business functions such as production in particular.
    . In some businesses, the administration function takes responsibility
      for important public relations activities such as customer services.

                   The research and development function.

The nature of research and development  (R&D) varies enormously between
businesses. Traditionally, the term research and development is taken to
refer to scientific research undertaken by firms producing manufactured
goods, high technology products or pharmaceuticals. However, R&D is equally
important to firms providing services.
By investigating in research and development a business seeks to maintain
competitiveness against its rivals. Competitiveness measures a businesss
performance in comparison with rival firms in the same market. A highly
competitive firm has some advantage over other businesses. This competitive
edge can take a number of forms:
    . lower prices
    . more advanced and sophisticated products
    . a better image with consumers
    . a good reputation for advise and after-sales service
    . reliability in terms of operation and delivery dates

Types of research:
    . basic research
    . applied research
    . development

The prime function of R&D is to develop new products that can give the firm
a competitive edge in the market. This necessary involves the R&D
department in close liaison with staff in market research, design and

                              Function 1.6: The nature of business activity

                       Functional areas of Tesco plc.

The diagram above shows the key functional areas or departments of Tesco,
as one of the leading retailers in the U.K. It is currently the leading
supermarket chain in Britain, with a higher market share than its leading
rivals, Asda-Wallmart, Sainsburys and Safeway.
  I have explained earlier the key functional areas of a typical business
and Tesco, as the diagram shows, displays this type of structure. For
example, the Company Secretary, Rowley Ager is responsible for Pensions,
the Company Secretariat (the administrative staff), the Treasury, Taxation,
Site Facilities, Transport and all aspects of Consumer Law.
   The Finance Department, directed by Andrew Higginson, is responsible for
all aspects of finance and audit, and also for European affairs. These
functions are shown in Figure 1.3 in my introductory section. I have no
detailed information on Finance within Tesco other than financial data
available from the Company Accounts and from the Tesco and Bized
websites and these are more relevant to a detailed finance study of
Tesco as a company, a topic to be studied in a later Unit.
 The Marketing Department, directed by Tim Mason, is responsible for  all
aspects of marketing , Customer Service, Advertising, Market Research,
Clubcard, Estates and Metros. Since the early 1990s Tesco marketing
strategy has been to become the best in terms of price, quality and
service. Objectives are set, and ways found of meeting them, in all aspects
of companys operation.
 The Retail Department, directed by Michael Wemms, is responsible for all
retail operations and express stores.
Tesco first ventured into foreign markets when it acquired stores in Irish
Republic in 1978, but these were sold in 1986. The 1990s produced a much
better climate for European expansion. Now Tesco operates 80 stores in
Central Europe, and 16 stores in two Far East countries trading both under
the Tesco and subsidiary fascias. The 13 Tesco stores in the Czech Republic
and Slovakia, 29 stores including 5 supermarkets in Hungary, 31 stores in
Poland. Also Tesco plan to open 12 hypermarkets in Thailand and in South
Korea over the next three years.
The Human Resources Department within Tesco is responsible for many
thousands of employees across the whole spectrum of the organisation. Tesco
employs 154,000 people in the UK and 27,000 in Ireland and Europe. It does
not appear on the organisation chart, which I obtained from Tesco, because
this function is somewhat complex and shared between the main headquarters
at Cheshunt. Hertfordshire, and the many stores operated by Tesco around
the country. For example, there are two Tesco superstores in Leicester, at
Hamilton and Beaumont Leys, both of which have a Human Resources officer in
charge of personnel administration.
The Commercial Department, directed by John Gildersleeve, responsible for
all commercial operations and technical services.
The Distribution Department, directed by Philip Clarke, responsible for
Supply Chain and all distribution operations. Distribution Director
responsible for products delivery, logistics and transport. Its purpose is
to ensure that Tesco stores have the right products delivered against
agreed delivery schedules and in good condition, enabling the stores to
provide a consistently high level of customer service. Tesco products are
sent to stores from distribution centres around the country. Tesco runs 13
centres and a further six centres are run for Tesco by contractors. A
typical centre covers 300,000 square feet and handles some 50 million units
a year. The centres work around the clock, seven days a week, providing
2,500 deliveries daily, amounting to 19 million cases per week. Tesco
employs 6,800 people in distribution (excluding the staff at the contractor-
run centres), and has about 1,000 tractor units and 2,000 trailers in its
national vehicle fleet.
The Operations department, directed by David Potts, responsible for
operations of Tesco stores in Northen Ireland & the Republic of Ireland. In
May 1997, Tesco completed an agreement with Associated British Foods to
purchase all their supermarkets in the north and south of Ireland. The
purchase price was 641 million, giving Tesco a further 110 food stores and
a leading position as a food retailer on both sides of the Irish border.

I have considered each of the major functions of Tesco separately. However,
it is the effective interaction of business functions that is essential to
the success of an organisation in attaining its objectives.
As an example, Tesco has recently introduced a customer-oriented website on
the Internet. Company has developed within this service facility a direct
order system via    E-mail  called Tesco Direct. Customers can order
their produce/product for home delivery.
There are now many thousands of such deliveries but these all depend upon
the successful interaction of the major business functions outlined
In other word, -
    . Marketing  - responding to the initial enquiry, receiving and
      processing an order, distributing the product to customer.
    . Administration  adding the customers details to the IT system,
      passing on details to other departments within the business.
    . Finance  investigating the financial status of the customer, offering
      credit terms if appropriate, invoicing for payment.
    . Distribution  receiving details of order and meeting the customers
      demands, liasing with marketing over delivery dates, rescheduling
      other production as required.
    . Human resources  at a store or warehouse level  ensuring sufficient
      employees are available to meet the delivery requirements of the
      order, arranging overtime payments if necessary.

Hence these functions help meet the objectives successfully. All Tescos
organisation structure works as links of a chain, if one link falls down,
all the organisation will experience difficulty. For example, most
important department of Tesco, I consider, is Distribution department. If
this department fails, products will not be delivered to the store, so
customers will go to another store. Tescos success is built on the good
work of each department.

                          Organisational structure
In many small firms, the owner may have a very hands-on approach and may be
responsible for getting customers, hiring any extra labour and acquiring
other inputs and taking all financial decisions. As organisations grow,
however, their structure takes on a greater significance and those at the
top have to pay more attention to its formal structure and presentation.
The various business functions will show an increasing degree of
specialisation as an organisation expands and people will be employed to
manage and take decisions in specialist areas.

In general, an organisational structure sets out:
   1. Major roles and job titles, showing who is in control of the business
      as a whole and who manages its major business functions within
   2. The level of seniority of people holding different positions and their
      respective positions in the organisations overall hierarchy.
   3. The working relationships between individuals, identifying
      relationships in terms of superiors and their subordinates and
      indicating who has authority to take certain kinds of decisions and
      who are responsible for carrying out the work arising from those
   4. The extent to which decision making is concentrated in the hands of
      people at or near the top of the organisation or handed down to those
      at lower levels of management.
   5. The broad channels through which information is communicated
      throughout the organisation, indicating the route by which
      instructions flow down the hierarchy and how information flows back up
      the hierarchy.

                            Organisational charts

Organisational charts are representations of the job titles and the formal
patterns of authority and responsibility in an organisation.
Business may produce organisational charts for several reasons. First, it
is important that a company reviews its organisational structure on a
regular basis to take account of  any changes in the business environment.
A formal organisational chart helps the company to identify where changes
need to be made and to decide the relationship between any new sections or
departments and the rest of the organisation. Business also produce
organisational charts because they allow a company to review its structure
and to identify areas where cost saving changes and improvements can be
made. Organisational charts are useful when changes take place in the
company. It can be updated to take account of any informal developments in
its structure that have been good for the company. A revised organisational
chart is particularly useful for informing people about the new structure
of the company after mergers or take-overs.
The organisational chart can also be used during an induction period to
give new employees a useful overview of the company and their own position
within the structure in terms of their authority and the managers to whom
they are responsible. Although an organisational chart has several uses, it
should not be taken as giving an exact description of how the organisation
actually operates. It does not give the exact nature of job
responsibilities or indicate what levels of cooperation may be necessary
between departments.

          Function 1.7: Line authority in a production department.

Chain of command - is the line of command flowing down from the top to the
bottom of an organisation. It passes down the management hierarchy, from
director and senior management levels to those in middle and junior
management positions and eventually to employees in supervisory jobs who,
for example may have authority over assembly line workers or staff
providing services to the organisations customers. Organisations with a
long chain of command - with a hierarchy made up of many levels of
management - are said to have tall organisational structures.

Span of control - refers to the number of subordinates a manager is
responsible for and has authority over. Organisations with a long chain of
command will tend to have narrow spans of control. Organisations with a
short chain of command tend to have wider spans of control. This produces a
flat organisational structure because it has a hierarchy with fewer levels
of management.

Flat organisational structures: are generally desirable, there is a limit
to the number of subordinates who can be placed under one superior. Even
very experienced managers who have the qualities and personalities that
promote loyalty and hard work can only be responsible for so many

Tall organisational structure : some organisations have many levels and
grades of staff with a tree-like management structure and strong patterns
of vertical communication. This means that there are many different grades
of staff between people lower down the organisation and the person at the
top. Tall organisations suffer from problems with bureaucracy, as
information needs to be directed through the correct channels before
appropriate action is taken.
The main features of such a structure are as follows:
   6. At each level there are several staff responsible to a person at the
      next level up. The process is repeated until the top of the
      organisation is reached.
   7. In a limited company the person at the top is the Managing Director
      who is ultimately responsible for the whole organisation.
   8. As the levels within the organisation are ascended, the number of
      people at each level decreases and this gives the organisation a
      pyramidal structure.
In an organisation with flat structure there are fewer levels or grades of
staff and much more emphasis on communication across the organisation. This
is more likely to be the structure of a small business where everyone knows
each other and works together more as a team.
In some situations, however, a relatively wide span of control may be
acceptable if:
   9. The potential disadvantages of a wide span are outweighed by the costs
      of employing the extra managers needed to produce narrower spans of
  10. Junior employees are engaged mainly in routine work and as a result
      the manager is required to make relatively few decisions.
  11. Managers are willing to reduce the pressure on their own time by
      delegating more decision making and they can identify staff who are
      likely to respond well to the extra responsibility.
  12. An effective range of financial and non-financial motivational factors
      produces a committed group of people who need very little supervision.
  13. The group within the span are highly skilled or talented and are given
      a great deal of scope to be creative and imaginative in their work.

                               Line structure

In a line structure, a company is usually organised into functional
departments, each headed by a senior manager, below whom there is a chain
of command. This indicates that there is a line of authority and
responsibility as one goes down the structure.
Each person in the line has authority over those below, while being
responsible for making sure that the work handed down to them from their
immediate manager is completed. This applies even if the subordinate does
not personally undertake the actual  work.
  14. It is hierarchical structure which is simple to understand - staff
      know precisely where they are in the structure, who can allocate work
      to them and to whom they are responsible.
  15. Managers have a clear understanding of the roles of people when
      allocating work and spend less time monitoring work because
      subordinates are not distracted or confused by instructions from other
  16. A well-established line authority makes it possible for work to be
      delegated further down the line - this can be valuable when superior
      is seeking to widen the experience subordinates and develop their
      management or supervisory skills.
  17. It can involve a very long chain of command - instructions may take a
      considerable time to filter from the top and impact on production,
      which can be an important drawback if the organisation operates in a
      rapidly changing market.
  18. The flow of information back up a long chain to management may be a
      lengthy process, causing a considerable delay before problems are
      identified and tackled.
  19. Individuals might only respond to requests from the superior, creating
      inflexibility in the organisation which may be totally unnecessary if
      co-operation with other managers does not effect working relations
      with their superior.

                          Line and staff structure

A line and staff structure combines both a line authority and what is known
as staff authority. The term staff authority refers to those staff, usually
at a relatively senior level, whose are of work often involves dealing with
different departments. Someone with the relevant staff authority can
provide services and advises to those in the line of authority of other
departments. Managers with staff authority do not have the power to control
or give instructions, but rather the authority to deal with different
departments and to offer advice or support services in relation to problems
or exploiting new opportunities. However, since those with staff authority
are appointed because of their expertise, experience and good personal
skills, their advice, though not binding, is likely to be very persuasive.
  20. Staff authority enables the expertise and experience of specialists to
      be utilised more fully across the organisation.
  21. By having access to all areas of the company, managers with staff
      authority, communications between departments are at director level,
      and so any inter-departmental communication has to pass up the chain
      of command in one department to director level and then down the other
      before it reaches the appropriate level.
  22. Staff authority prevents individual departments from being too inward
      looking - departments remain aware of their interdependence and their
      role in seeking to achieve the organisations objectives.
There is a risk that staff authority may diminish the authority of
individuals in the line management, particularly if those with staff
functions acquire informal power and authority.

                              Matrix structure

In a matrix structure, a senior manager heads a division or team of
specialists drawn from different departments. These specialists are also
located in departments where they are part of a line authority; they are
therefore subject to two sources of authority.
In a matrix structure the simple chain of command found in a line structure
is replaced by a very large number of reporting relationships as
individuals report to managers in more than one department or function.
A matrix structure may be used for just some of an organisations
activities or it may cover the whole work of the organisation. It is often
used for organising and managing project teams, where people with
specialist skills, perhaps from different levels in the hierarchy, are
brought together to solve complex and urgent problems. Project teams may be
created to deal with issues which arise every now and again or they may be
an ongoing feature of the organisational structure.
Some aspects of marketing, however, may be handled by an ongoing project
team drawn from other departments, although the membership of the group may
change as different marketing issues arise.
  23. It promotes increased co-ordination between departments because it
      cuts across departmental boundaries - it encourages greater
      flexibility and creativity, produced by the cross-fertilisation of
      knowledge and skills.
  24. It allows for the involvement of relatively junior staff, giving them
      valuable experience in a wider field for the expression and
      application of their particular skills.
  25. Staff lower down a line structure can also gain valuable management
      development in a project team, preparing them for promotion to higher
      management positions.
  26. The involvement of specialists from different areas reduces the risk
      of  resources
being wasted on projects with no future - in non-matrix structures an idea
in, say, the marketing department may be pursued for a long time before it
          comes to the attention of production which might find that it is
simply not practical.
    . The existence of a matrix structure and project teams can lead to
      confusion as individuals are involved in a large number of different
      relationships creating a complex pattern of authority and
    . A line manager may resent a subordinate receiving instructions from
      managers based on other departments, especially if they are at a lower
      level of management.
    . This also raises questions as to who has priority over the
      subordinates time and what information arising out of the work of the
      project team should also be reported through the line authority. This
      can be a potential source of conflict and relations may also be
      strained if  the subordinate suffers from divided loyalty.

Centralised structure

Organisations are centralised when the majority of decisions are taken by a
few people at the top of the organisation and little decision making is
delegated to those further down the organisational structure.
Even if many important decisions are delegated to subordinates, some
aspects of the business are always likely to remain totally under central
control. In general, senior managers or a centralised department takes
responsibilities for: major financial issues, wages and salaries, manpower
planning and personnel records, purchasing.
  27. Senior management have more control of the business, eg budgets.
  28. Procedures, such as ordering and purchasing, can be standardised
      throughout the organisation, leading to economies of scale and lower
  29. Senior managers should be more experienced and skilful in making
      decisions. In theory, centralised decisions by senior people should be
      of better quality than decentralised decisions made by others less
  30. In times of crisis, a business may need strong leadership by a central
      group of senior managers.
  31. Communication may improve if there are fewer decision makers.

Decentralised structure

Complete decentralisation would mean subordinates would have all the
authority to take decisions. It is unlikely that any business operates in
either of these ways. Even if authority is delegated to a subordinate, it
is usual for the manager to retain responsibility.
Some delegation is necessary in all firms because of the limits to the
amount of work senior managers can carry out. Tasks that might be delegated
include staff selection, quality control, customer relations and purchasing
and stock control. A greater degree of decentralisation - over and above
the minimum which is essential - has a number of advantages.

  32. It empowers and motivates workers.
  33. It reduces the stress and burdens of senior management. It also frees
      time for managers to concentrate on more important tasks.
  34. It provides subordinates with greater job satisfaction by giving them
      more say in decision-making, which affects their work.
  35. Subordinates may have a better knowledge of local conditions
      affecting their area of work. This should allow them to make more
      informed, well-judged choices.
  36. Delegation should allow greater flexibility and a quicker response to
      changes. If problems do not have to be referred to senior managers,
      decision-making will be quicker. Since decisions are quicker, they are
      easier to change in the light of unforeseen circumstances which may
  37. By allowing delegated authority, management at middle and junior
      levels are groomed to take-over higher positions. They are given the
      experience of decision making when carrying out delegated tasks.
      Delegation is therefore important for management development.

Delayered structure

Delayering involves a business reducing its staff. The cuts are directed at
particular levels of a business, such as managerial posts. Delayering
involves removing some of these layers. This gives a flatter structure.
Delayering is likely to play a major role in a policy of decentralisation
as the removal of management layers allows authority for decision making to
be shifted to a lower level in the organisation.
    . The savings made from laying off expensive managers. It may also lead
      to better communication and a better motivated staff if they are
      empowered and allowed to make their own decisions.
    . However, remaining managers may become demoralised after delayering.
      Also staff may become overburdened as they have to do more work. Fewer
      layers may also mean less chance of promotion.

Management style

Management style refers to the approach that an organisation takes in
setting objectives for its employees and the way it manages relations
between superiors and subordinates.
Management or leadership styles can be categorised as:

Autocratic: A manager that adopts an autocratic management style takes
entire responsibility for decisions and, having set objectives and
allocated tasks to employees, expects them to be carried out exactly as
specified. Employees are told exactly what, how and when work must be
started and finished. It is the kind of management style often associated
with a corporate culture centred almost exclusively around production.
Power is focused at the top, and the centralised decision making is geared
to getting the goods out of the factory and to customers. Little regard is
paid to any non-monetary needs of employees; they are not consulted or
involved in decision making.

Democratic: A democratic management style seeks to involve employees in the
decision-making process, either by consulting them directly or through
their representatives. This approach reflects a corporate culture which is
more human resource centred and recognises the organisational benefits from
meeting its employees non-monetary needs - such as a need for job
satisfaction and a sense of belonging. A consultative approach is
particularly important if an organisation is planning to change product
design or working conditions, methods and practices.

Laissez-faire style: This style gives people complete freedom to organise
and carry out their work. It is a very person centred approach. A laissez-
faire approach may still impose some constraints, such as completion dates
for certain key tasks or the earliest and latest arrival times for a
flexible hours working day. There is no formal structure for decision
making as decisions are taken by a variety of processes depending upon the
nature of the problem, the opportunity to be explored and the individuals

Consultative style: Leaders consult with others before decision are made.
There will be a group influence in the final decision, even though it is
made by the leader.

As diagram above shows, Tesco has many levels of staff: directors on the
top, and step by step to employees on the bottom, therefore I can think
that Tesco is a hieratical organisation, where each individual knows who he
must report to. Communication  in a complex organisation such as Tesco will
be dependent on the organisational structure, but this will be discussed
later in my section on Communication.
I can see that Tesco has a centralised and decentralised form of
organisation because people on the top, who control the company, take the
majority of decisions and also the companys Head office is centralised at
Cheshunt in Hertfordshire.
Tesco is very big organisation and has very many stores in different places
 this fact shows that Tesco is a decentralised organisation, with much
decision-making delegated on a regional and individual store level.
From the information I have managed to access I believe/consider that Tesco
has a very good democratic and consultative management style. It is a very
successful firm, as seen earlier, it is now the U.K. market leader with
positive leadership from above and a notable corporate culture.
The directors present their annual report to shareholders on the affairs of
the Group together with the audited consolidated financial statements of
the Group for the 52 weeks.
The principal activity of the Group is the operation of food stores and
associated activities in the UK, Republic of Ireland, France, Czech
Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Thailand. A review of the business
is contained in the Annual Review which is published separately and,
together with this document, comprises the full Tesco PLC Annual report


Culture in organisations is often described as the set of values, beliefs
and attitudes of both employees and management that helps to influence
decision-making and ultimately behaviour within them. Each organisation has
a unique culture. This is what makes studying business behaviour so
fascinating. The business culture helps to determine how things get done in
firms and defines, quite simply, how the company works. The fact that
organisations are themselves organic, composed of workers constantly
interacting with each other and their environment, suggests that the
culture in firms is not static and constant  the way firms operate can
change, either intentionally through management action or more likely
through natural evolution.

                              Corporate culture

Corporate culture is a set of values and beliefs that are shared by people
and groups in an organisation. A simple way of explaining corporate culture
might be to say that it is the way that things are done in a business.
The corporate culture of a business can influence decision-making. It also
encourages low level managers to behave like entrepreneurs. Business
leaders are able to create a corporate culture to achieve a corporate
objectives and strategy of the company. It is important that the corporate
culture of a business is understood by all the people that work in the
organisation. It is usually transmitted to new members and reinforced
informally, by stores, symbols and socialisation, and more formally through

Advantages of a strong corporate culture.
    . It provides a sense of identity for employees. They feel part of the
      business. This may allow workers to be flexible when the company
      needs to change or is having difficulties.
    . Workers identify with other employees. This may help with aspects of
      the business such as team work.
    . It increases the commitment of employees to the company. This may
      prevent problems such as high labour turnover or industrial relations
      problems .
    . It motivates workers in their jobs. This may lead to increased
    . It allows employees to understand what is going on around them. This
      can prevent misunderstanding in operations or instructions passed to
    . It helps to reinforce the values of the organisation and senior
    . It acts as a control device for management. This can help when
      setting company strategy.

                   Figure 1.8: Types of business culture.

                    Culture, presented within Tesco plc.
Tesco has achieved its position as Britains leading food retailer by
offering excellent value and service to its customers. Underlying its
business success is a commitment to upholding certain values, working
principles and culture within the organisation, and to seek continuous
improvement in its ethical performance. As a measure of its achievement to
date, in 1997 the company came top in the Christian Aid league table for
ethical commitment.

Tesco must serve its customers by providing the goods they want and the
service they expect. By meeting customer needs better than its competitors
do, Tesco earns profits and creates value for its shareholders.
Customer service is at the heart of Tesco business culture. The base line
is quality and value, but customers also look for a shopping environment
which is attractive, well planned, and enjoyable. They also expect staff to
be helpful, responsive to their needs, and sympathetic to their problems.
Tesco is constantly seeking new ways of meeting customer needs. These
include introducing Customer Assistants dedicated to helping customers at
every point during their shopping, establishing a Customer Service Centre
to deal with customer enquiries, providing facilities for customers with
disabilities, and organising customer question times when Tesco can hear
customers views.

Tesco employs 154,000 people in the UK and 27,000 in Ireland and Europe. It
is constantly told by customers that its staff are the companys best
asset. This means that the company must motivate and train its employees to
give the best possible customer service, and provide opportunities for all
members of staff to develop their talents to the full.
The company believes that the welfare and safety of its employees is of
paramount importance, and applies high ethical standards to protect
workers rights and reward employees fairly for their work. Full and part-
time staff have had their benefits harmonised, including salaries, purchase
discounts, pensions and profit-sharing. The company has a national
agreement with USDAW, the shop workers trade union.
The approach of Tesco to worker welfare goes beyond its own employees. The
company insists that its suppliers meet certain employment standards in
matters such as fair pay or minimum working ages. Tesco believes it can
play a positive role in influencing working practices around the world.

Like other large companies, however, Tesco recognises that its wider
reputation depends on other things, such as its staff relations, its
attitude to the environment, its support to the community, and its
relationships with its suppliers. Also, as a leading food retailer, the
company must ensure that it provides products, which are safe to eat or
use, as well as giving customers advice on matters such as healthy diets.

                              Health and safety

Tesco customers rightly expect that their purchases will be safe to eat or
use. The company applies the highest standards in meeting these
expectations and makes special provision for those with special dietary
needs. Following government recommendations on the nations diet, Tesco was
the first retailer to promote healthy eating.

Environmental policies

Tesco is committed to protecting the environment and to using its
commercial strength to put its principles into practice. In many cases, the
companys standards far exceed legal requirements. Its environmental
policies cover matters such as recycling of packaging, working with
suppliers to minimise the use of pesticides, energy conservation, and the
siting and design of its stores. Tesco also works closely with
environmental organisations in areas relevant to its business.

                               Animal welfare
The company aims to set the highest standards of animal welfare in the
industry, and has introduced a code of practice on the treatment of animals
to which all its suppliers must adhere. The company is also funding
research to improve understanding of animal welfare, and will continue to
promote and implement high standards in order to improve animal husbandry
still further.

                        Relationships with suppliers
Tesco has relationships with thousands of suppliers in the UK and overseas,
and works closely with these suppliers in order to ensure that products are
of the highest quality and delivered in the best possible condition. By
working in close partnership with its suppliers, Tesco is helping them to
meet its own high standards, not just in efficiency and product quality,
but also in environmental protection, animal welfare and employment

                                The community
Tesco is very much part of local communities throughout the UK and is
committed to playing a positive role by working with community
organisations. The companys community contribution covers support for
education, groups dedicated to helping people with disabilities, and a wide
variety of other organisations. The company has introduced schemes which
enable its own staff and customers to help raise money for good causes.

Each large supermarket retailer in Britain has its own corporate identity
and culture. Often these are very similar, yet each organisation seeks to
present its own individual image. Of the types of cultures that I have
discussed above, I think that Tesco displays many of these differing forms,
especially customer driven or customer orientated, task culture,
competitive culture, innovative culture and positive culture.  It is often
said that in business the customer is King and this is very true of
Tesco, which operates in a very competitive market. It must be very heavily
customer orientated as satisfied customers will usually regularly return,
but dissatisfied customers may not . and go elsewhere! It is also very
innovative, always encouraging new ideas and products, e.g. the possible
introduction of car sales. Tesco used to be a food retailer, but now it
also sells clothing, electrical goods, books and stationary, computers,
mobile phones, etc. It has a very positive culture as it is always
searching for new opportunities for its staff and also its retail products.
Its success is now a good indicator of how this blend of business cultures
has led to market growth and market leadership.

The efficient communication of information is particularly important for
organisation that operates in competitive markets. Relevant and accurate
information is needed to plan and manage efficient production, marketing,
distribution and cost control. Information  whatever it is nature and
purpose  must be communicated as efficiently as possible.
 All people in an organisation are part of an information flow  they are
involved to varying degrees in providing and receiving information.
However, there are three main levels at which information is required:
      . operational level
      . middle management
      . senior management.

                              Operational level

At the operational level  on the factory floor, in the office or at
premises where consumer services are provided  there are charge hands and
supervisors who must ensure that work is planned and carried out as
efficiently as possible. In a factory, for example, a supervisor giving the
task of overseeing the production of a particular item needs to know:
    . the quantity to be handle
    . the completion date
    . the availability of plans and machine capacity
    . the operations to be performed
    . the kinds of labour needed and its availability
    . the materials and components required to produce the order.

The kind of information assists the supervisor in planning and controlling
he work and it is essential for decision making at an operational level.
Activities at the operational of an organisation produce data that will be
processed to provide much of the information required by middle management.

                              Middle management

Middle management needs to know how efficiently work at operational level
is been carried out and the extend to which any resources under their
control are being used to achieve the organisations objectives. Much of
this information relates to the productivity of labour, the utilisation of
machine capacity and the rate at which materials and other inputs are being
Middle management also needs a great deal of financial information about
the costs of the resources consumed in relation to output. This financial
data can be used to determine and monitor total costs, revenues, profits
and the achievement of business objectives for example, it will be possible
to identify any fall-off in productivity or rise in labour costs which
might contribute to arise in unit labour costs or to detect the excessive
use of materials which might suggest an increased in wastage.

                              Senior management

So far, I have mainly considered the need for information that is processed
and generated from sources within the organisation. At senior level,
however, information from internal sources often has to be supported by
information derive from external sources to help managers ensure that the
resources and their control are used as efficiently as possible in
achieving business objectives. Decision making at senior management level
has a major influence on the success or failure of the organisation. Any
decisions concerned with controlling the organisation, assessing its
performance, planning its future and initiating action must be supported by
all relevant information.
Decision making at senior level in areas such as business strategy and
planning requires information about broad trends rather than detailed
information needed to make many routine decisions on day-to-day matters at
lower levels of the organisation. Senior management need information about:

    . developments in initial costs and sale trends
    . overall profitability, and the respective contribution of each part of
      the business
    . capital requirements, and availability of internal funds and the cost
      and sources of external capital
    . manpower and skills requirements
    . forecast of demand of the organisations markets
    . the impact on business of any changes in the economic, political,
      social and legal environment.


               Prep                  Line manager                  Prep


Staff                                          Subordinates


      Figure 1.9: Communication network

                     Communication channels and methods

The communication channel refers to the means by which information is
communicated. The actual choice of communication channel depends upon a
combination of:
    . the need for an immediate feedback or response
    . costs
    . speed and urgency
    . the number and location of the people who need the information
    . the degree of confidentiality and security required
    . the desired degree of formality
    . convenience
    . the complexity and amount of detail to be conveyed
    . the type of information to be communicated
    . the need to keep a record of the communication.
  Business information can be communicated in many ways. Methods include:
    . written reports
    . instruction manuals
    . letters, circulars and memoranda
    . material posted on notice board
    . in-house magazines and newspapers
    . sheets of figures
    . information on standard forms
    . graphs, charts, drawings and photographed
    . video, television and other audio-visual techniques
    . meetings and interviews
    . public address announcements
    . electronic mail
    . network messaging
    . fax
    . telephone and voice mail
    . pager device
    . video conferencing
Whatever communication method is used, the information sent should be
relevant and avoid superfluous comments and unnecessary detail. The
information communicated to a supervisor on a factory may have to include
an exact description of the operations to be carried out. In contrast, much
broader information is supplied to middle and senior management. Senior
managers may only require general indicators and a broad description of the
developments that need to be considered when assessing the organisations
performance, setting objectives and deciding upon strategies.

                             Exception reporting

To ensure tht the information provided to management is relevant, clear and
concise and makes effective use of managers time, some organisations
stipulate that managers are only provided with dada relating to exceptional
developments. Middle management, for example, may only receive information
connected with performance measurements that deviate by more than an agreed
percentage from their targets. The information dealing with exceptional
performance should also be supported by brief statements of the internal
and/or external factors that may have contributed to any exceptional
performance. Exception reporting makes more effective use of the time and
skills that middle management devotes to decision making and to initiating
and controlling actions.

                         Downward information flows
A downward information flow describes the provision of information by a
superior to an immediate subordinate. It is, therefore, concerned with
internal communications as part of a formal communications channels. A
downward information flow can cover:
    . issuing instructions on the tasks that have to be carried out by a
      subordinate and setting objectives, such as the target data for
      completing the work
    . requesting information concerning the area of work for which
      subordinates are responsible
    . communicating the organisations procedures, working methods and
      practices and the rules and regulations
    . given feedback on subordinates performance in relation to his or her
      objectives and targets
    . motivating people and encouraging attitudes that raise productivity
      and improve quality.
Some information will not come from an employees immediate superior but
from other parts of the organisations. For example, when employees first
start work they receive general information about the structure and goals
of the organisation from the personnel department. However, for information
that relates to work undertaken by the subordinate, the communication
channel should be from superior to immediate subordinate.

                          Upward information flows

An upward information flow along a vertical information channel is from a
subordinate to a superior. This might be feedback from a downward flow or
the communication may originate directly from subordinates. An upward
information flow can cover:
    . responding to a superiors request for information on some aspect of
      work for which the subordinate is responsible
    . informing managers about the subordinates own performance, problems
      or their personal ambitions in relation, for example, to promotion or
      opportunities for developing new skills.
    . passing on information about other employees in the subordinates
      section and relations with sections with which there is a direct link
    . submitting ideas on improving working methods and solving work

In the interests of effective working relations. Most organisations expect
subordinates to report formally through their immediate supervisor or
manager. However, they are likely to communicate in formally with managers
higher up the hierarchy and in some situations, such as grievance
procedure, may go directly to a more senior manager than their immediate

                         Horizontal information flow

In addition to upward and downward flows, there are also horizontal
information flows between people of the same status. Because many
operations within an organisation must work very closely together, there
must be formal arrangements for the exchange of   information between
sections and departments. The production department, for example, must have
close contact with the purchasing department when it is considering changes
to materials and components or introducing advanced machinery and
equipment. Production staff also has to exchange information with employees
in requirement, training, marketing and transport.

                         The quality of information.
The essential characteristics of an efficient information system are that
the right people receive the right information at the right time. The
information communicated should be:
    . internally relevant to the needs of the recipient
    . accurate and concise
    . comprehensive, avoiding a time-consuming request for extra
    . clear  it must be presented and communicated without ambiguity or
      possible misunderstanding.
The person receiving the information must have confidence in the ability of
the sender and, therefore have the confidence to take decisions based on
the contents of the communication. The person sending the information must
be confident that the receiver has the ability to understand, use and take
effective decisions based upon the information supplied.
This information system, the communication media and the kind of
information provided should be review on a regular basis. The information
system should be adjusted to take into account any developments within the
organisation such as changes in its organisational structure or management
style. This review should also take into account external factors such as
advances in information technology.

                           Informal communications

Vertical and horizontal information flows should be clearly defined. If
individual are not sure about from whom the y should receive information
and instructors, this can lead to the growth of information flows which are
not part of the formal system. If there are two information flows running
at the same time, there can be confusion and a fall in productivity. These
informal systems can generate alternative sources of information and create
a situation where the different levels of management receive inconsistent,
inaccurate or even conflicting information.
Many businesses, however, accept that some tasks would not get completed if
they only used formal channels of communications and chains of command. It
may be necessary to short cut the formal system if a matter is very argent
or a clash of a personalities is creating communications problems. Some
informal channels may be tolerated if groups of workers have formed good
working and personal relationship outside of the formal channels. Informal
channels may even be the most effective way of communicating some kinds of
All organisations have a grapevine, which communicates information
informally through personal contact between employees both vertically and
horizontally throughout the organisation. The grapevine can be a quick way
of communicating information to the workforce as a whole as it tends to
operate by word of mouth. It can be used to pass on important information
before an official announcement and, depending upon the feedback generated,
the company may modify its intentions before the formal announcement.
The problem with using the grapevine is that information can get distorted
or exaggerated as it is passed on. Proposal to cut a workforce, through 10%
natural wastage and 5% redundancies, may soon get changed to 15% compulsory
redundancies as it spreads through the grapevine. This may be useful as the
actual announcement may prove to be much more acceptable than the distorted
version on the grapevine.

                           External communications

Efficient internal communications are important, but an organisations
external communications are vital. Its business prospects will be seriously
threatened if it neglects its external communications. An organisation
needs to communicate externally with:
    . customers and clients
    . suppliers of materials, parts, machinery, other physical inputs and
      business services
    . local, national and European authorities that deal with matters such
      as taxation, planning permission, environmental protection,
      competition law, investment grants, trading standards, and health and
    . pressure groups concerned with issues such as consumer protection,
      animal welfare, environmental matters and the welfare of law paid
    . the media and the general public on matters that can either damage or
      enhance the companys public image.
Organisation must ensure that the quality of their external communications
is as high as possible and select the most effective media for
communicating information. It is obviously important that organisations
maintain effective communications with their customers, and most businesses
invest heavily in market research promotion to attract and keep customers.
Many companies now recognise the importance of providing a communication
channel which allows customers easy access to the company. Some companies
advertise a customer care telephone number or an E-mail address on their
packaging or promotional literature. The customer care section will be
stuffed by people trained in the kinds of communications skills needed to
deal with customers making complains. Larger companies may employ
specialists press officers and public relations officers to handle dealings
with the media, pressure groups and the general public.
Organisations relying on other companies for materials and components can
find themselves in financial difficulties of their external communications
lets them down and orders are not placed at the right time. This may led to
shortages of parts and materials, and production may be held up. Relations
with suppliers may also be affected by poor verbal communications skills
which can cause confusion of the exact nature and delivery of an order. It
is for this reason that any changes to an order made verbally should be
supported by some form of written or electronic confirmation.

               Opened and restricted channel of communications

In most organisations, some internal channels and communication media are
open to all employees; stuff at all levels can access the information.
Organisations want to provide some information to all their employees. This
would include, for example, information on health and safety regulations,
environmental management policies, incentive chemist and any response to
resent adverse publicity. This downward information flow from the top of
the hierarchy would be open to all.
The content of much downward and upward information flow sis fairly
routine, and organisation are not too concerned about people beyond the
sender and recipient being aware of what is being communicated. However,
access to some information and channels of communications may be
restricted. Some information is sensitive  and if it becomes known to
people other than the intended recipients, it could create either internal
or external problems.

                  Information and communication technology
Both internal and external channels of communication are increasingly
supported by information technology, with computers generating and managing
information flows. A computer-based information management system provides
the mean to communicate, collect, store, summarise, analyse and present
information in a way that best suits the controlling and decision making
needs of different managers. Inform received by one department or section
can be further processed before it passed onto other departments through
the organisations computer network.
Computer systems can help organisations:
 . react changes in the business environment
 . process complex information
 . provides administrative support
 . increase job certification
 . collect information at source
 . communicate via the internet.

                        The Data Protection Act 1984
The Data Protection Act was introduced to ensure that organisations
structured and managed the data held on their computers in a responsible
way. These are its main provisions.
 . Organisations must register the kind of information it keeps on
   individuals with The Data Protection Agency (DPA).
 . Data must be obtained and processed fairly. People should know if the
   information they give to organisations will be kept on computer and why
   it is needed.
 . Organisations can only collect the kind if information that they have
   registered  with the DPA, and the data must not be used outside of the
   purpose for which it has been registered.
 . The information held on individuals must be accurate and, where
   necessary, up to date and it must not be kept longer than necessary.
 . Organisations must take precautions against unauthorised access to the
   information they hold on individuals.
 . Individuals are allowed access to the personal data held by
   organisations and, where necessary they can correct mistakes.
In March 2000 the Data Protection Art was extended to cover records kept on
a paper as well as information stored on computers and to provide
additional protection for the individual. The protection includes new
rights to know who holds information on you. It provides a statutory right
to know the identity of the person in a business responsible for data
protection issues, right to have a photocopy of personal information held
by organisations and greater rights to object to anyone holding personal
There are also new rules to prevent organisations sending data to a country
outside the European Union in an attempt to avoid complying with
legislation on data protection. There are new provisions which can lead to
individuals being held personally responsible for not abiding by the rules.

                       Communication within Tesco plc.

An illustration of communication within Tesco plc.

   Figure 2.0: Example of vertical and lateral communication within Tesco.

I have analysed the communication within Tesco plc. and now I can say that
Tesco uses relevant and accurate information to plan and manage efficient
development, marketing, distribution and cost control. Information,
vertical and lateral, communicated within Tesco very efficiently at the all
levels. Every single person who works in Tesco is sure about from whom he
should receive information and instructions.
But apart of internal communications Tesco has very good external
communications as well. The company communicates with customers and
suppliers very well. The quality of Tescos external information is very
high. Tesco has many communication channels which allow customers easy
access to the company, for example, Tesco advertises a customer care free
telephone number and e-mail address on its packaging literature.

Production involves activities, which combine inputs in order to bring
about the physical changes that eventually produce the desired output  the
product. The product may be goods for consumers and households or parts and
machinery for other producers and manufacturers. Production can create a
physical change through:
    . Processing
    . Manufacturing
    . Assembly
    . Craft-based processes.

                                 Value added
A common feature of all forms of production is that they are the means by
which organisations add value to their operations. Put simply, all
organisations add value to the externally sourced materials and other
inputs that contribute to their output. Value added is the difference
between the value of an organisations output, as measured by sales
revenue, and the costs of its inputs bought in from outside which
contribute to output.
The relative importance of the input costs incurred by a producer depend
upon the nature of the business. Most businesses generally consume a
combination of:
     . Raw materials
     . Parts and components
     . Energy
     . Business services.


Quality has always been an important competitive factor in some markets,
but during the 1980s an increasing number of UK producers began to devote
more attention to quality improvement. The rise in the spending power of
the average household meant that consumers choice of goods and services
was no longer so dependent on price. At the same time, consumers were being
offered a wider choice obliged producers to improve and complete on
quality. Because firms producing consumer goods and services sought to
raise quality, their suppliers  companies producing materials, parts,
machinery and business services  were also forced to improve quality.
A growing number of organizations now operate in markets where product
differentiation is rapidly decreasing. For example, advances in technology
mean that there is now very little difference between personal computers
offered by the different manufacturers in particular price range. A PC
producer must therefore strive to gain a competitive advantage by
establishing a reputation as a company with high quality and good customer
care. Consider training shoes as another example. Manufactures of trainers
periodically introduce new features into their shoes in an effort to create
a greater degree of product differentiation, but they all remain
essentially the same design and product. If the identifying logos are
removed, the average buyer might find it difficult to distinguish between
Producers of both consumer goods and consumer durables must therefore place
more emphasis on quality when marketing their products.
The increasing importance of quality can also be seen in the market for
consumer services. The main features of services provided by airlines,
banks and fast food chains are often virtually identical, and product
differentiation can only really be achieved by improvements in quality.
Another factor in changing business attitudes to quality was the success of
Japanese manufacturing companies. It was perceived that quality played an
important role in helping Japanese companies succeed in European and US
markets. By the end of the Second World War very little manufacturing
capacity remained in Japan, and in the immediate post-war period Japanese
products generally had a reputation as being cheap but inferior quality
versions of products manufactured by US and European producers. However by
the early 1980s Japanese companies had become closely associated with high-
quality products for which they were able to charge premium prices. In the
early 1980s, Japan had 18 per cent of the world trade in the manufactured
goods, substantially more than the UKs 5 per cent share.

                               Quality control

 Quality control involves an organisation using some kin of inspection
system for identifying materials, parts, components and finished products
which do not meet the companys specifications. Inspection or testing may
be carried out at various stages of production to ensure that faulty items
do not remain in the production chain.
 The operative or inspection department may check every item or just a
sample of production. Processing industries, such as the brewing and
chemical industries, also test regular samples of their products. Quality
inspection is supported by highly sophisticated monitoring, measuring and
testing equipment. This allows organisations to make adjustments to machine
settings and control devices to improve quality.
 There are some drawbacks to a quality inspection system. Using an
inspection system to control quality encourages employees to take it for
granted that some output is bound to be defective. Less attention is paid
to preventing errors and defects in the first place as they will be picked
up later by the inspection system.
 A quality control system must ensure that there is regular contact between
those departments that have a particular interest in quality matters. The
marketing department, for example, may identify issues raised by customers,
while the design research and development departments should work with
production on developing the product so that current defects are eliminated
when work is being processed.

                          Quality assurance schemes

A quality assurance scheme is the means by which an organisation implements
its commitment to quality. It helps firms to do the job properly the first
time, because the scheme is designed to prevent failures rather than
detecting errors once they have occurred. In this way a quality assurance
scheme (QAS) differs radically from quality control systems which involve
inspection procedures at various stages of production. The design of a QAS
recognises that defects do not just happen; they are caused by people.

                              Assuring quality

Once an organisation has identified the reasons why people are responsible
for defects and errors, it can develop a system which eliminates the causes
of defects. In this way, quality is assured. There is no single format for
a QAS, and an organisation chooses a system which is most appropriate to
its particular product or service. What it must do is to insure that every
stage of production (or in the provision of a service) that materials,
equipment, methods and procedures are used in exactly the same way, every
single time.
All employees should be aware of what is expected of them, and should know
how their own particular performance has to meet certain clearly identified

         Product Evaluation and Quality Assurance within Tesco plc.

         What product evaluation and quality assurance in Tesco plc.
Tesco products are continually monitored and tested for their quality and
customer acceptability; this is product evaluation. Tesco staff and
management procedures are also monitored to ensure that they maintain the
highest standards; this is quality assurance.

                Why does Tesco carry out product evaluation?
Product evaluation is carried out for a variety of reasons. These include:
testing new products under development
testing existing products when a change of supplier is being considered
testing Tesco products against those of competitors
to update information on the packaging
to monitor quality and safety standards.

                      Changing of packaging information
Even when a product remains the same, packaging information may have to be
altered because of a change in legal requirements, changes in nutritional
concepts, or advances in food preservation and cooking. For example, a
product might have its packaging altered to indicate that it could be
suitable for microwave cooking. It will therefore be necessary to test the
product in companys laboratory. Here Tesco inserts fibre optic probes into
the product. This allows us to monitor the temperature of the product
whilst it is cooking, in order to ensure that it reaches a high enough
temperature for it to be consumed with safety.

                         Tests on existing products
Quality control tests are conducted regularly on all existing own-brand
products at Head Office, in Consumer Advice Centres, and in specialist
laboratories. These include tests on food safety.

                            Consumer Advice Centre
The purpose of five Consumer Advice Centres in Sandhurst, Shoreham,
Southport, Cheshunt and Perth is to carry out practical research with
customers into new and existing products. Each centre is staffed by two
consumer service officers who are qualified home economists. Their most
important role is to conduct consumer acceptability tests and sensory
analysis. Over a four-day period, six to eight products will be tested.
Their role also includes being available to the customer for any queries
concerning diet, health and nutrition, PR work at a local and national
level, quality control, and giving talks and demonstrations to local
community groups.

                          Organising a taste panel
Market researchers will recruit customers who are shopping in the store.
These customers take part in the test only if they fulfil the recruitment
criteria that have been established for the product being tested. For
example,Tesco might ensure that all participants are heavy users of the
product, or a product aimed at children will be tested on children only.
As far as possible, consumers test Tesco products against a benchmark. This
other product is normally the market leader; testing against it allows us
to ensure that product matches or exceeds this quality standard. Products
are tested 'blind' and identified by codes so that consumers do not know
which one is the Tesco product and which one is the benchmark.
The questionnaire is designed so that consumers give scores for various
questions, such as their opinion as to the appearance of the product; they
are also asked to tell us what they liked and disliked about the product.

                              Sensory analysis
Sensory analysis is a more technical evaluation of a product which is
carried out by consumer service officers who have been specially trained to
analyse the product using uniform objectives and technical descriptions.
They will evaluate the product and forward a description of it to Head
Office for use in the final report.

                         What is done with the data?
Data from sensory analysis, questionnaires and customer comments are
collated and subjected to statistical analysis at Head Office which will
lead to a product either passing or failing the tests. If it is failed, the
product is reformulated according to the comments made by customers in
response to the questionnaire. Products are then re-tested and will be
launched only when they achieve a pass result.

                      Implementing of quality assurance
Quality assurance is implemented at all levels in Tesco. Everyone is
'focused' on giving the customer the best possible shopping experience in
terms of service, quality, availability, price, car parking facilities and
store design. This 'focus' is set in Annual Trading Plan and is implemented
through various departmental objectives and through specific training
programmes. Tesco invests large amounts of money in training, so that Tesco
can achieve specific objectives, for example First Class Service
Usually each initiative has a sponsor, normally a Main Board member. It is
the directors and managers who brief the teams, and then it is up to
individuals to 'buy in' to an idea. Tesco has found that this process works
well as it is not prescriptive and it allows people to implement new ideas
in their own way.

                        Setting standards for quality
A common tool for creating 'benchmarking' standards is called SWOT
analysis. This stands for 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
threats' and it provides a useful way of evaluating quality standards.
Standards cannot exist in isolation, and SWOT allows comparison with
competitors to be taken into account. Tesco therefore uses SWOT a good deal
for specific products, for example in evaluating a new range of
merchandising or evaluating a new process provided by a supplier.

                           Tesco Packaging design.
Tesco has many 'Own Brand' products, and in order to promote its own brand
correctly Tesco has its own Packaging Design Department. Products sell for
a variety of reasons; in the first instance, the visual appeal of a product
is important to attract customers to the product initially, as it is only
after the first purchase that the customer is attracted because of the
quality of the product and its value for money.

                   How does Tesco add value to its product?
Usually value for product depends on one very important key  quality of
the product, better quality  more tests are done  bigger value, but Tesco
tries to keep prices lower than all other national supermarkets. Tesco adds
value to its products by means of buying it from contractor for lower
price, testing it, and selling it for higher price.


             Success of the business in meeting its objectives.

Tesco is one of Britain's leading food retailers and has 586 stores
throughout Great Britain. In Europe Tesco has 41 stores in Hungary, 32 in
Poland, 13 in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, 33 in Northern Ireland, 76
in the Republic of Ireland and 1 in France, to prove that business meets
its objectives successfully Ill present some diagrams and companys
financial records.
                 Turnover and profits of Tesco in 1997-1998
The turnover and profits for the year ending 28th February 1998 were as
   1. Group Turnover (incl VAT) - 17.8 billion (17,800 million), an
      increase of 18.7% on the previous twelve months. This figure is for 53
      weeks compared to 52 weeks for the previous year and includes the
      newly acquired businesses in Northern Ireland and the Republic of
      Ireland. On a comparable basis with the previous year, excluding the
      Irish acquisitions, turnover was 16.4 billion, and increase of 9.2%
   2. Profits on ordinary activities before tax, integration costs and
      disposal loss - 832 million, an increase of 10.9% on the previous
      twelve months.
              Changing of company's financial fortunes 1992-98
 The changes in the company's financial fortunes are shown in graphs 1 and 2

Graph 1,2: Group turnover and operating profit 1992-8

Graph 3: Share earnings and dividends 1992-8

                  Profits share
In 1998 the profits from Tesco after tax were 505 million. About 50% of
the profits were distributed to shareholders as dividends. Subsequently
approximately 250 million was retained by the company for investment in
new stores and improving their service to customers.

                   Changing of share price in recent years
Between February 1997 and February 1998, the Tesco share price rose from
349p per share to 517p. It reached a peak in the period of 539p. In the
year 1998-9, the price continued to rise, being 586p on 21st April 1998,
and having peaked at 603p at the previous stock market high.
                            Market share of Tesco
In February 1998, Tesco had 15.2% of the UK retail food market. The
company's share has increased consistently since 1992 when it held 10.4% of
the market.

                     Graph 4: Market share growth 1992-8

          Turnover, profits and market share of Tesco in 1999-2000

                                                Profit and loss account

This year was another successful trading year for Tesco plc. Total sales
increased by 9.8% to 20,358m and underlying pre-tax profit increased by
8.4% to 955m. Adjusted diluted earnings per share rose 8.6% to 10.18p. A
final dividend of 3.14p per share is proposed, making the full year
dividend 4.48p, an increase of 8.7% over last year.
UK retail sales have grown 7.4% to 18,331m. Like-for-like sales were 4.2%
which consists of volume of 3.2% and inflation of 1.0%, with new stores
continuing to perform well, contributing 3.2% to sales.
UK operating profit increased to 993m up 8.1% on last year. Tescos UK
operating margin remained broadly flat at 5.9% in a year when Tesco made
substantial investments in price.
Company change programmes continue to deliver increasing levels of
efficiencies enabling us to invest for customers and grow profits.
Sales in the rest of Europe accelerated with total sales up 18.8% to
1,527m and contributed an operating profit of 51m, up 6.3%. Sales in the
Republic of Ireland in local currency are up 6.1%, reflecting the benefits
of companys store rebranding programme. In Central Europe sales are up
76.8% at constant exchange rates. Tesco 11 new hypermarkets across the
region have all traded strongly since opening.
Business in Thailand has seen good growth and the three new stores have
contributed to sales of 357m up 96%. In South Korea, Tesco Homeplus
achieved sales of 140m in the period since acquisition. In the Asian
region Tesco made a small operating loss of 1m.
Tesco Personal Finance has now been trading for nearly three years and
share of losses this year are 4m compared to a 12m loss last year.
Tax on underlying profit has been charged for the year at an effective rate
of 27.4%.


                               15 January 2001
Group sales for the seven weeks ending 6 January 2001 increased by 15.4%.
This growth was driven by excellent performances from all four elements of
Tesco strategy: a strong core UK, increasing non-food sales, rapidly
developing international stores and expansion into retailing services.

Total UK sales for this seven weeks, covering Christmas and the New Year,
were up 10.5%. Compared to last year this period included one extra day's
trading over the New Year. Like-for-like sales were up 6.9% driven by
excellent sales volumes of 7.3%. This performance reflects determination to
deliver the best offer for customers as Tesco continue to cut prices.
Overall deflation was -0.4%.

In 2000 Tesco opened 32 stores internationally adding over 3m sq. ft. of
new trading space. This represents an increase in International trading
space of over 45% on the previous year. International sales were up 50%
over the Christmas and New Year period as a result of existing stores
maturing and new store openings.

Companys strategy of offering excellent value in non-food to customers was
a resounding success this Christmas. Tesco achieved sales in all areas
including 14,000 DVD players and 8,000 widescreen televisions.

The roll-out of Tesco.com to cover 90% of the UK population helped drive
the performance over Christmas with sales up 400% on last year. To meet
this demand Tesco.com recruited 400 new staff, allocated 10,000 additional
delivery slots and delivered 30m products.
            Some examples of meeting its objectives by Tesco plc.
Product promotions
Objective: to give customers a broad range of strong relevant promotions in
all departments of the store.
Examples: hundreds of MultiSave, Link Save and Special Offer promotions in
all stores every month.
Product range
Objective: to give customers what they want under one roof.
Examples: constant development of new and exciting food products;
introduction of clothing, CDs and videos.
Objective: to be competitive especially with regard to the basic lines.
Examples: Value Lines and Unbeatable Value pricing, giving low prices on
key brands and own-brand products.
Customer Service
Objective: to provide customers with outstanding, naturally delivered
personal service.
Examples: baby changing facilities, no quibble money back guarantee, 'one
in front' queuing policy.
Store design
Objective: to provide an environment that is easy and pleasant to shop in.
Example: store layouts, fixtures and ambience improved to ease customer
flow and make shopping more enjoyable.
Store refurbishment
Objective: to upgrade existing stores to the standard that is expected from
Example: existing stores improved to include recent innovations.
Objective: advertising should appeal to all social and economic groups in a
relevant and friendly way.         Example: recent television ads.
    How the organisational structure, culture and management style of the
   business affects its performance and operation and helps it to meet its

I have analysed each of the major functions of Tesco separately. However,
it is the effective interaction of business functions that is essential to
the success of an organisation in attaining its objectives.


 Tesco uses advertising in the press, on the radio as well as on television
to support the companys marketing by making the public aware of the
products and services available in its stores.

The Tesco logo.
  The Tesco logo is a vital part of its image. By 1995 many versions of the
logo had evolved and companys corporate identity was not focused. Company
therefore began to use one single Tesco logo that is the same everywhere,
on stores, letterheads, posters, lorries....
 The new logo has the company name in red, the underlining in blue and the
background white. However, given the cost of this change Tesco did not
immediately change every logo for the sake of it, but gradually as old
items were replaced, repaired, repainted, reprinted or re-designed. This
means that it is taking about three years for the new logo to completely
supersede all other versions.

Chefs Club.
 The Chefs' Club is an initiative which brings the best advice on food and
drink to customers and aims to make shopping more enjoyable. Tesco is
working with some of the country's top chefs and other experts who want to
share their passion for good food and drink with customers.

Tesco Packaging Design.
 Tesco has many 'Own Brand' products, and in order to promote its own brand
correctly Tesco has its own Packaging Design Department. Products sell for
a variety of reasons; in the first instance, the visual appeal of a product
is important to attract customers to the product initially, as it is only
after the first purchase that the customer is attracted because of the
quality of the product and its value for money.

Tesco Product Promotion.
 Product promotion is the responsibility of the Tesco public relations
team. The team is always involved at the planning stage of any new product
or service, and its brief is to generate extensive and appropriate coverage
for the new product.Tesco has three key objectives for any product
promotion; these are:
    . to reinforce the Tesco brand values of quality, choice, price and
    . to maintain the Tesco image as a market leader through its products
      and services
    . to manage product issues - both positive and negative.


Purpose of the distribution department

Its purpose is to ensure that Tesco stores have the right products
delivered against agreed delivery schedules and in good condition, enabling
the stores to provide a consistently high level of customer service.

 Tesco products are sent to stores from distribution centres around the
country. Tesco runs 13 centres and a further six centres are run for Tesco
by contractors. A typical centre covers 300,000 square feet and handles
some 50 million units a year. The centres work around the clock, seven days
a week, providing 2,500 deliveries daily, amounting to 19 million cases per
week. Tesco employs 6,800 people in distribution (excluding the staff at
the contractor-run centres), and has about 1,000 tractor units and 2,000
trailers in its national vehicle fleet.

How does Tesco keep each store supplied with what it needs?
The key to the distribution systems ability to supply each stores needs
are the advanced use of IT at all stages of the distribution system.
Information from stores about their sales and requirements is sent to Tesco
Head Office and from there to the distribution centres. The centres run a
computer system that has been specially designed to fit with Tesco working
practices and to maximise efficiency).

How does Tesco achieve maximum efficiency in its distribution centres?
Computerised information arrives via printers in the warehouse offices. The
system feeds this information directly to the staff on the warehouse floor
via radio links mounted on the fork-lift trucks. The system helps to
control the movement of stock and the activity of staff. Thus when a person
has finished a particular job, the computer decides which would be the most
efficient job to allocate next to that person, based on his or her current
position in the warehouse.
Also, in the past, Tescos operations have been slowed down at peak times
by the need for product identification and purchase-order matching. Now
each goods-in checker is equipped with a scan gun which can scan the outer
case code of each product and radio the information back to the Head Office
computer, which matches a delivery with its purchase order in an instant.
As well as easing bottlenecks, this system enforces accurate outer case
coding, which Tesco believes to be essential to future developments in its
distribution system.

                               Human Resources

 People are fundamental to business and the way company recruit, develop
and reward people is the key to success. Human Resourcing in Tesco is
therefore influential, leading edge and proactive to ensure continued
 Human Resources at Tesco is divided into a number of central areas which
focus on the design and research of Tesco HR policies and a number of front
line HR professionals that work in partnership with companys Line Managers
to deliver the business plan.

 Promote management development
Tesco does this by providing opportunities for everyone to increase their
learning, thus enabling Tesco to thrive in a constantly changing and
competitive market place. Tesco does this by:
designing training packages which equip people with the knowledge, skills
and experience needed to reach high standards of performance, and equipping
trainers to coach others thus maintaining excellent quality standards.
enabling training to be delivered in the workplace by people who know how
to do the job themselves.
exploiting new methods of learning, and thereby providing a supply of
general business managers for the future.
developing effective working relationships with colleagues and suppliers
through listening and challenging, and designing products which inspire

 Research and development of effective corporate human resource policies
Tesco does this by:
being constantly aware of UK and European employment legislation, and
translating it into policy that maintains a balance between cost
effectiveness, fairness, developing relationships with people, and
companys business aims.
researching and developing people involvement strategies; this involves
analysing staff research, which includes both large-scale corporate surveys
and specialist staff research.
providing updates on employment law.
scanning and benchmarking other organisations, in order to import best
practice and maintain a competitive stance.
ensuring specific policies, for example regarding the employment of
disabled people and equal opportunities.
achieving external recognition, to ensure that Tesco is seen as a quality

 Developing selection standards and implement corporate entry programmes
Two crucial roles for the Human Resources Department are:
developing selection standards which will enable  managers to select the
best people who will continually increase value for customers.
implementing corporate programmes in order to ensure that the company's
manpower requirements are met.
Tesco does this by:
designing recruitment and selection processes which will equip managers
with the skill and knowledge to select the best.
training managers to maintain selection standards, and to select using the
most reliable and leading-edge processes.
developing corporate competency frameworks which enable managers to select
the right people, who have the skills the business will need in the future.

developing corporate entry programmes to ensure that corporate manpower
needs are met in terms of skills and numbers.
developing and implementing Tesco employment branding and marketing
strategy in order to ensure that Tesco is seen as a quality employer which
attracts the highest calibre candidates.
developing a pool of Excel graduates providing a supply of managers with
broad business experience.
developing at a national level links with leading education/industry
establishments, and planning initiatives whereby managers can develop links
with education at a local level.

 Reward Development
Reward Development researches and develops rewards and organisational
design strategy which enable Tesco to recruit, motivate and retain the
best. Tesco does this by:
sourcing and analysing pay and benefits data to enable Tesco to keep
remuneration and benefits packages competitive.
continually shaping innovative ways of rewarding staff, thereby enhancing
the value of the reward package and increasing staff retention and
developing performance management processes and tools which will improve
performance and encourage motivation in staff
providing advice and if necessary challenging organisational design,
thereby ensuring a maximum return on corporate reward spend and creating
organisational structures which will deliver business goals.

 HR professionals
HR professionals operate out of the Line, working as part of the senior
management team in order to influence and implement HR strategy. They work
closely with the central HR departments and line managers to deliver key
aspects of companys business plan:
Develop the best
Recruit the best
Retain loyal and committed people
Live the values of the company
Transfer HR skills effectively to the line.

Hence these functions help meet the objectives successfully. All Tescos
organisation structure works as links of a chain, if one link falls down,
all the organisation will experience difficulty. For example, most
important department of Tesco, I consider, is Distribution department. If
this department fails, products will not be delivered to the store, so
customers will go to another store. Tescos success is built on the good
work of each department.
 As an example, Tesco has recently introduced Customer-Oriented
Initiatives, such as:

Loyalty cards

 Clubcard was test-launched in October 1993 and was rolled out nationally
in February 1995. Clubcard has transformed the retail grocery sector and
has brought Tesco closer to its customer. At the heart of the programme is
one of the most sophisticated customer databases in Europe.

 Clubcard is a magnetic 'swipe' card obtained free in store. The checkout
assistant swipes the card prior to scanning the customers shopping. For
every 1 spent, one point is earned. Each point is worth 1p. When shopping
at the originating store, the till receipt advises:
    . Points earned from that shopping trip
    . Points accumulated during the quarter.

The points earned are recorded on a central computer and are converted into
money-off vouchers every quarter.
 Customers can earn Clubcard points at:
    . Tesco stores
    . Tesco petrol stations
    . B&Q
    . Energi - through Norweb
    . Tesco Personal Finance
    . Tesco Home Shopping.
In addition Clubcard has recently been extended to Ireland and to the Tesco
Vin Plus store near Calais.
Home shopping
                                                       Many people today,
both single people and couples, are working longer hours and do not want to
spend part of their leisure time making a trip to the local supermarket. To
help people save time on shopping, Tesco has introduced Home Shopping, a
service which makes use of information technology so that people can do
their shopping via the Internet from their home computer. This was first
introduced on CD-ROM in July 1996, and Tesco followed this up by becoming
the first UK food retailer to offer an Internet-based home shopping service
in November 1996.
Personal Finance
                                                        In 1997, Tesco
decided to extend its customer offer to include personal financial
services. In partnership with the Royal Bank of Scotland, Tesco is
providing new ways of banking and other services to its customers.

C 3.

                   The impact of ICT on internal and external communications

                              Importance of ICT

  IT is vital to Tesco because every aspect of its operation is controlled
or monitored by IT - stock, distribution, payroll, accounts, and so on. For
example, when an item has its barcode read at the checkout, the system not
only logs the price onto the till, but also logs the financial transaction
between Tesco and the customer and the fact that the stock has been reduced
by one item. On the distribution side, instructions from the mainframe
computer are sent directly to fork-lift truck operators at depots by radio
All stores are connected to the mainframes at Head Office via the Tesco
Network. There are a large number of different applications that stores use
both independently and via the mainframe connection. For example there are
Personnel and Scheduling systems in-store, and access to electronic mail
via the mainframe.

                                 IT capacity
Tesco has a three-level architecture with mainframe, middle system servers
and PC clients. Their main frame has a 6 million Mb storage capacity
(equivalent to 6 million 500-page books!). Their private digital network to
600 stores has a capacity of 11.5 Mb. They use some 100 Tesco-written
computer applications and over 200 PC packages.

                 How much does Tesco spend on IT each year?
Last year, Tesco spent about 133 million on IT, that is about 1.4% of

                 How does that compare with other companies?
A recent independent survey of Europe's leading 500 companies in all
commercial and industrial sectors placed Tesco 112th overall in Europe in
terms of IT spending, but 3rd in the list of European supermarkets, and 1st
amongst British supermarkets. [Source: Information Week 19-20/12/97].

How many on-line card authorisation requests does Tesco receive each day?
Over one million on-line card authorisation requests are dealt with every

                                Internet site
The Internet site receives 250,000 hits per week and was used to launch
Tescos home shopping service and the Tesconet  Inertrnet Service provider.
The internet site has proved to be a great success, with the introduction
of Tesco Direct, the home ordering and delivery service. Such home
shopping is becoming increasingly important as more and more customers
gain access to the internet via home PCs. Sainsburys, one of Tescos great
rivals, has also now launched its own home delivery service via the


                     Tesco own Internet site. Home page.

                 ICT systems used by Distribution Department
 IT has revolutionised all aspects of the selling, ordering, distribution
and analysis of Tesco products. The operation of Tesco large distribution
centres is a highly complex business. In recent years new computer systems
have revolutionised distribution operations, allowing more effective stock
control procedures, increasing productivity and making the best use of
time, space and labour.
The base system used to control the distribution operation was purchased
from Dallas Systems and customised to Tesco requirements. There are two
particularly important sub-systems, known by the acronyms DCOTA and DCAMS.
DCOTA (Distribution Centre On-board Terminal Access) is a system which
sends information by radio directly to the special terminals in the trucks
of the fork-lift truck
drivers at the distribution centres. The system controls the movement of
stock and trucks in order to make the most efficient use of time and space,
automatically matching up locations and trucks. As soon as one assignment
is finished, the next brief will be transmitted to the truck-mounted
terminal, showing the driver where to go next. Every warehouse location has
a check number prominently displayed on the racks; this number is entered
by the driver each time he visits a location, enabling the computer to
check that each pallet has been placed in the correct slot.
DCAMS (Distribution Centre Assignment Monitoring System) is the system that
monitors how far each job has progressed, and the deployment of staff. It
is available to supervisory staff via hand-held radio frequency terminals,
enabling them to predict and pre-empt problems by re-deploying staff and,
if necessary, changing work priorities.
Radio frequency communications are also used in the checking in of goods.

Ordering by stores now relies heavily on IT, using Sales Based Ordering.
Data is received by the distribution centre from the Head Office mainframe
system, and then passed to the warehouse systems described above.

These mainframe computers are among the largest in Britain. The mainframes
are either IBM or compatible (Amdahl), running IBM operating systems. There
are mainframes situated in two separate locations.

The loss of a whole mainframe would have serious effects, and for this
reason company has two mainframes to provide backup capacity. In the event
of a disaster which involved the complete destruction of one of the
computer centres, the other could re-establish these vital systems within
48 hours. The backup procedure is tested regularly each year.
The backup systems for the distribution depots include specialist routines
that allow depots to switch between computer sites, and are at the leading
edge of data processing technology. If a complete computer centre were
lost, IT communication with all affected depots would be re-established
within six hours at the most.
 Goods are now ordered from suppliers using a system called Electronic Data
    Interchange (EDI). Orders for goods are transferred to the suppliers
  electronically using a service called INS-TRADANET. The use of EDI keeps
 suppliers precisely informed of Tesco requirements for companys stores. It
  allows Tesco to run the business more effectively and efficiently because
 of its speed and accuracy. It is both quicker and more cost-effective than
  telephone, post or fax, and eliminates errors due to loss, or to wrongly
                               printed orders.
EDI is also used for:
sending sales forecasts so that suppliers can anticipate demand and reduce
lead-times for stock to reach the stores
securing the best payment terms and discounts for Tesco
simplifying the invoicing process, so that invoices are generated
automatically and postage and paperwork are eliminated
working internationally, to eliminate time and language differences.

                       ICT systems used in Management.
Management Information is data stored electronically for use by business
executives at all levels to support their decision making. This type of
information is typically historical, and needs human interpretation before
a decision is made. Tesco is planning to introduce a new system, called
Data Warehouse, which will give much greater analysis and flexibility, and
will further enhance the ability of managers to make informed decisions.

The sections below describe Tescos current Management Information
environment, and the planned Data Warehouse, broken down into four topics:
Business use, Technology, Data and Analytical tools.

A) Business use
Current Management Information
Access to summarised data at pre-defined levels
Most decisions made at a macro (e.g. regional level)
Planned Data Warehouse
Access to in-depth information for informed decisions
Decision made at micro level, e.g. in store
Use of balanced score carding for suppliers, stores, etc. with supporting
Use shopper behaviour to influence new lines, promotions, and product

B) Technology
Current Management Information
Mainframe, text-based reporting and analysis
Downloaded to local PCs for in-depth analysis and graphics

Planned Data Warehouse
Specialised hardware and software to manage data (the 'Information
Information from the Information Warehouse to be accessible from anywhere
within Tesco and available also to designated outside users, e.g.
suppliers, agencies
Cost of computer hardware and software is 'scaleable', i.e. Tesco can add
processing power and storage capacity at reasonable cost and in manageable
chunks to keep pace with the information needs
Dedicated NCR machine and peripherals.

C) Data
Over 10 million customers, over 60,000 products and 586 stores
Current Management Information
Data held on mainframe, PC or on paper
Internal data analysed using SAR reports and MAS analysis tool (see below)
External data received by EDI or on paper
Planned Data Warehouse
Data collected from Tesco operational systems and external sources, and
stored centrally to provide one consistent source of information
Data is stored on customer behaviour, product performance, branch
performance supplier performance, depot performance
Data held at lowest level to enable ad hoc groupings,

e.g. salt sales in stores by the seaside last Easter.

D) Analytical tools
Current Management Information
Mainframe based
FOCUS - report generator
SAR - report viewer
MAS - Tesco-written multi-dimensional analysis tool
PC Lotus suite - spreadsheet and database applications
Planned Data Warehouse
A simple interface with the information using the score card concept, with
top level measures and capability to 'drill' to the level of information
required to support decisions
IT populate the Information Warehouse and users control their reporting
Logical access to information, with user choice of level, groupings,
stores, products, measures, and other parameters

                    ICT systems used in store operations.
IT is essential to the running of a modern store. It is used for planning,
monitoring and auditing store operations. In fact, the logistics of running
a major store would be severely hampered without IT, and the expansion to
Superstores and Hypermarkets would have been difficult without modern IT

Tesco stores vary greatly in size, from small Express stores covering 2,500
square feet to giant hypermarkets covering 120,000 square feet. The product
range depends on the size of the store, and varies from 2,000 lines in a
small store up to about 40,000 lines in the biggest. Computerised Store
Merchandising and Planning systems ensure that Tesco get the right products
to the right store, and get the right amount of space on each shelf within
a store. This allows Tesco to get optimum sales for the space allocated to
the product, and gives the customer the most appropriate range of products.

 A store can monitor what has been sold through the scanning operation at
the checkout. The introduction of barcodes and scanners not only allows
items to be checked out more easily, but it provides information that is
constantly fed back to the store's computer for the monitoring of sales,
both in terms of stock depletion and money taken.

 Barcodes and scanners provide several benefits to companys customers:
As purchases are no longer entered manually into a cash register, accurate
pricing is guaranteed.
The scanning till is faster, reducing the time for which customers have to
queue by about 15%.
Produce is now weighed at checkouts, removing the need to queue twice (once
for weighing and once at the checkout) as used to happen.
Improved promotions may be offered, such as Multisavers.
The customer gets an itemised till receipt giving details of the product
purchased, price, weight (if weighed), total cost and method of payment. It
also shows the store telephone number, plus details which will trace the
sale quickly if a customer has an enquiry.

Tesco benefits as much as the customer from the new systems. Notably:
Improved transaction accuracy: operator error is removed; fraud is limited
as there is no opportunity to enter a lower price on the keyboard.
Improved customer service - customers are important!
Improved productivity. There is no need to label each item with its price,
which can now be displayed on the shelf edge near to the product. Removing
separate weighing stations removes the need for a manned point in the
produce department; customers move through the checkout faster.
Selective promotions can be initiated.
Stock levels can be reduced as the exact quantity held is always known and
re-ordering can be made more accurate
Wastage of perishable goods is reduced, as they too can be ordered more
Monitoring sales analysis and the effectiveness of promotions provides
valuable information for Tesco buyers and also the company's suppliers.

 Every product has a unique number, the European Article Number or EAN.
This number is allocated to each product by the Article Number Association,
which oversees the operation of the numbers for all businesses in the UK.
The number can be found below the bar code. The bar code is a
representation of that number in a binary form that can be read by a
scanner. The scanner uses a laser and measures the difference in reflection
to the laser of the bars and spaces.
The EAN and barcodes normally consist of 13 digits, although there may be
only eight on smaller products. The first two digits are a national code,
representing the marketing country. The next five digits identify the
supplier of the product and the following five identify the product itself.
The final figure is a 'check digit' based on the other twelve numbers,
which allows the computer to validate the code.

The introduction of IT in shopping has been matched by banks. This has
resulted in new developments in payment. The simplest of these is that
cheque details can be printed out by the till, based on the information
used to produce the receipt. Credit card vouchers can be printed similarly,
and credit card details read electronically from the card.
A further advance has come with Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale
(EFTPOS). This allows Tesco to transfer money from a customer's bank
account or credit card account automatically. Two developments that have
come from this are the debit card and 'cashback'.
Debit cards are a means of purchasing without cash or a cheque. Unlike
cheques, there is no limit to the amount a customer can spend with a debit
card as the transaction is automatically checked at the customer's bank
and, providing there are sufficient funds in the customer's bank account,
the payment is then guaranteed to Tesco. Unlike credit cards, the customer
pays at the time of the sale.
The facility to give customers up to 50 in cash also comes from being able
to check the customer's bank or credit card account, and has proved a
popular innovation with customers, who are saved the necessity of a trip to
a bank or cashpoint.

Within a store there are two crucial systems that enable Tesco to sell
products. These are the front-end system, called ProgreSS, and the
replenishment system, SBO.
The ProgreSS system holds pricing details of the 60,000 different products
that Tesco sells, their description, and details of any special offers on
them. It records details about each sale, not just the amount of each item
sold, but whether the price has been reduced, the amount of money tendered
and the change given. It also controls Clubcard processing, registering the
points earned on the card. Whilst the system manages the main grocery
tills, it also has the ability to be aligned to specific business
functions. So different 'personalities' are used within the garage,
pharmacy, hot chicken counter and pizza areas.
The system is also used to control the back office and cash areas. During a
normal day's operation the system will transmit batches of information to
the mainframe systems at Head Office. This is primarily sales data, but
also includes details on reduction sales and Clubcard details, together
with daily totals and so on. In return it receives price changes, and new
and delisted product information.
The ProgreSS system runs on an RS6000 machine.
The stock replenishment system is called Sales Based Ordering (SBO). As its
name implies, it orders new stock on the basis of what has been sold. It
also manages in-store stock control and the central ranging and ordering
Whilst there are some 60,000 products sold by Tesco, even the biggest
hypermarket will stock only about 40,000 of them. Some Express stores will
stock only 2,000 lines. The system keeps track of what products are stocked
and how much is in the store, and is then able to use this information,
together with the sales data, to calculate how much more should be ordered.
Most products have to be calculated every day, on a one or two day lead
time (the time between ordering and delivery).
The SBO system also manages the recording of all store-based stock
movements (for example damaged goods, out-of-code waste, transfers to other
stores), stock count scheduling and validation. The stores also use the
system to influence their orders, for example factoring up expected sales
of ice cream when a hot spell is forecast.

                ICT systems used by Customer Service Centre.
 The centre provides a central customer service operation for the company;
it handles requests for information and customer enquiries. It also handles
the management and administration of Tesco Clubcard, and the processing of
orders for the Baby Catalogue and the Home Shopping service.
The scale of the operation, and the efficient organisation of staff to
provide exceptional customer service, requires the extensive use of IT both
in telephone and information systems.
To give you an idea of the scale of company operation, Tesco employs over
400 staff, both full and part-time. The Clubcard loyalty scheme has over 10
million customers. In a typical week Tesco get 100,000 telephone calls,
5,000 letters, and 1,500 e-mails from customers, and company generates
7,000 outbound letters to customers.
Tesco uses IT to manage 100,000 calls a week, both to organise the calls
efficiently and to provide information on the timing and length of calls
for planning and monitoring purposes. Among the systems Tesco uses are:
ACD - Automatic call distribution (Meridian)
   This system manages the way calls get routed to Customer Service Centre
   staff. Calls into the centre are distributed to ensure that call queues
   are managed effectively. Real time monitoring facilities provide
   information on service levels.
Call forecasting and scheduling system (QMax)
   The distribution of calls varies significantly throughout the week. This
   system is used for forecasting when calls are likely to be made. The
   information is then used to schedule staff availability so that they are
   there to take the calls.
IVR - Interactive voice response
   This is a menuing system on the telephone to filter out those calls that
   can be handled without an operator. The customer selects various options
   so that calls can be transferred directly to the appropriate service or
 There are many ways in which IT provides and organises information for
Tesco. For example :
Customer services have systems to assist in logging customer enquiries,
handling responses and tracking progress on outstanding issues.
Tesco has an addressing system, based on the Post Office Address File, that
enables accurate addresses to be captured quickly.
Tesco has a knowledge base on an intranet to help staff deal with customer
queries. This contains frequently asked information about the companys
stores, products, services and policies, as well as general information
about nutrition and healthy eating.
Management reporting is used extensively to provide information to the
business on customer concerns. Tesco is now looking at new technology as a
way of pro- actively reporting on any serious issues that emerge requiring
close, urgent attention.
 Orders from Home Shopping customers may be received over the telephone, by
fax or via the Internet. These are collated by store and go through a
delivery scheduling system which plans the most efficient delivery route,
and are then transmitted to the stores for packing and delivery.
The Clubcard system enables staff to deal with customer queries related to
the service. This involves managing a large number of routine calls with
regard to changes of address, lost cards, and so on. IVR systems are used
to intercept these routine calls so that they can be handled automatically.


  Alternative approaches which might enable the business to better meet its
The retail grocery market is intensely competitive today and no serious
contender can afford to rest on its past achievements. This should
encourage Tesco to pioneer many new ideas. By listening and responding to
customer needs, Tesco will continue to bring in new ideas and services. Its
latest venture, with the Royal Bank of Scotland, launched in November 1997,
is to offer customers competitive financial services through its stores. It
is fifty years since Jack Cohen opened his first self-service shop, and we
expect Tesco stores in fifty years' time to be as different from those we
know today as Tescos current stores are to the stores of fifty years ago.
 Non-food retailing is a major part of Tesco strategy. Tesco is increasing
competition and offering customers real value and choice in all areas from
sportswear to software, electricals to spectacles. By introducing these
ranges to more of companys stores Tesco also offer customers the
convenience of shopping for great value non-food along with their food and
household goods.
 More choice in-store includes many new lines for the home and garden,
motoring and leisure, fashion and cosmetics. Opticians, mobile phones and
health and beauty are examples of departments that have been expanded to
meet customer demand. Tesco relaunched its clothing range to offer better
value, quality and choice.
 In this year Tesco should continue to bring its customers big names at
competitive prices. Last year, for example, Tesco sold 14-inch Bush TVs and
Vodafone, Orange, One 2 One and Cellnet mobile phones at record low prices.
Film and batteries came down by 30% and cuts of between 15% and 50% are
being made on stationery, pet accessories, video tapes, CDs and DVDs and
many other popular products.
 The convenience of shopping for non-food alongside food is what Tesco
should offer customers. At the start of the year Tesco already had 90
stores trading with full non-food offer in the UK. During the year Tesco
should increase this as much as possible through extensions, refits and new
store development programmes.
Through these programmes Tesco will have more Tesco Extra stores including
its newest at Newcastle upon Tyne. It is Tescos first UK store to be
designed and built to  hypermarket blueprint, using many of the elements
which Tesco has found to be successful in  European and Asian stores. It
has given to the company the opportunity to introduce a much wider range of
non-food products to the UK, giving its customers even more choice when
they shop at Tesco.

Through innovating and investing for its customers Tesco is leading the way
in new forms of retailing. Tesco is the largest on-line grocer in the
world, and through the rapid development of its e-business Tesco is now
offering customers real choice and value on the internet.
Tesco.com is new 100% subsidiary company that runs companys e-commerce
business, which is an important part of companys future strategy. Tesco
should ensure that it has a real focus, the relevant resources and can move
 Grocery home shopping business offers customers shopping on-line choice,
value and convenience. Hundreds of new customers are registering every day
and Tesco has the capacity to grow this business at a significant rate.
On the internet Tesco is not constrained by space as the store can be as
large as you like. Companys Internet customers now have an exciting range
of non-food offers beyond food shopping - just a few clicks away. Tescos
new book store offers a choice of 1.2 million titles, with 50% off top
lines and Tesco has an entertainment store selling over 300,000 CD, video
and DVD titles.

Tescos European business is focused on the Republic of Ireland and the
four Central European countries of Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and
Slovakia accessing a population of 68 million people. In Ireland the
business is progressing well as Tesco near completion of rebranding
programme. And in Central Europe Tesco continue its rapid hypermarket roll-
out opening 11 stores and 1.3 million square feet in the year.
Regional focus and market leadership is a key objective of Tescos strategy
in Central Europe. Tesco is the only retailer in all four countries -
Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Companys portfolio now
includes 19 hypermarkets totalling two million square feet of retail space.
Tesco is meeting and stimulating demand in these markets as customers begin
to recognise the better choice, quality and value that Tesco offers.
Tesco is pursuing an active programme of store openings which will take the
company to 69 hypermarkets by the end of 2002, and will make the company
the market leader across the region.
The hypermarket blueprint is the focus of Central European activities. At
100,000 square feet or more, hypermarkets give Tesco the space to offer
customers extensive food and non-food ranges at outstanding prices.
Tesco is learning all the time. The format is internationally transferable
and adaptable to different regions, and part of the success has been to
supplement UK skills in grocery retailing and customer service with
international expertise.
In the Republic of Ireland Tesco should continue to make good progress.
Without the benefit of any new stores, sales increased by 6.1% in the year.
Cumulative sales growth since acquisition is now 20%, moving market share
to 23.3%.
Ireland and Central Europe are already a significant part of the Group
employing 27,000 people which will grow even further as Tesco move forward.

Asia is the second international region where Tesco is expanding. The Tesco
Lotus business in Thailand now has 17 hypermarkets and is well on the way
to market leadership. In South Korea, through Tescos partnership with
Samsung, Tesco now has two outstanding hypermarkets which are among the
highest turnover stores in the Tesco Group. Now Tesco should open its store
in Taiwan. These three markets will give to the company access to 130
million people.

In South Korea, a country where 50% of households own a PC and 78% a mobile
phone, the retail industry has huge growth potential. In 1999 Tesco
invested 142m in a partnership with Samsung, which brought two world-class
hypermarkets operating under a top retail brand as well as a number of
sites that Tesco will now develop. Tesco should t expand more hypermarkets
in next years.
Tesco now should move rapidly towards global sourcing, which will enable
company to buy quality products at the best prices and deliver them at the
lowest cost. Tesco has already set up three sourcing centres in Hong Kong,
India and Thailand. These now source 30% of Tesco non-food products
(excluding Health and Beauty). Tesco should  move this higher in next
years, with the opening of a fourth sourcing centre in Central Europe.
As a student from Russia (I live in Kazakstan) I would like to see Tesco
further expand its activities in Eastern Europe, and therefore why not
Russia? At the present time there is nothing similar to Tesco on the
Russian market, so I think Tesco wont have any problems to get into it.
It is difficult to suggest alternative approaches for Tescos strategy
because the firm is evidently doing very well. I would suggest however that
Tesco continues to seek markets overseas to further develop its growing
global presence.

As mentioned above, Tesco has been very successful over recent years, and
it is therefore quite difficult to suggest  Alternative strategies.
However, from my I might suggest the following:
 . Expansion overseas  e.g. Russia.
 . Increase market share  e.g. merge with Safeway. If Walmart took over
   Asda, why cant Tesco take over Safeway, for example.
 . Expand into new market / product  e.g. cars, travel.
 . Rewards to staff, introduce a widespread  bonus or share ownership (if
   Tesco doesnt do it yet)


 Evaluation of the effects that the alternative approaches might have on the
      structure and functions of the business, and how it achieves its
Alternative approaches, suggested in A1 can affect the functions of the
organisation and how it achieves its objectives very much, but they wont
really affect structure of the organisation, because Tescos organisation
structure is very good and there is no point of changing it.

                              Expand to Russia

If Tesco expands to Russia, in general, it is going to be only benefit to
the company. Of course first Tesco will have to spend some money to build
and open new supermarkets, but it is not going to be very difficult because
there are no other companies like Tesco. Big advantage of expanding Tesco
into Russian market is that straight way after it Tesco will definitely
become a dominant firm on market, because there are not very strong
competitors and very soon Tesco can become a monopoly on the Russian
market. Disadvantage of expanding is that Tesco can get failure as well.
Russian prices and British prices are very different, so if Tesco retails
goods, which are more expensive then in others stores, not many people will
by it.

                            Increase market share

Every single organisation wants to increase its market share, and the best
way of doing it is to merge or take over another company. And I suggest
that Tesco also could increase its market share by merging another
retailer, for example Safeway. Safeway is not as big as Tesco, so it is not
going to be very difficult to merge it or take it over. The advantage of
the merger is that Tesco will increase its market share very much (by 10%)
and two dominant firms of UKs market joined together can easy become a
monopoly. The disadvantage of it that it is not very easy to do, because
now Tesco has 35% market share, and if it merges Safeway, Tescos market
share will be increased up to 45%. But British law says that firm which has
45% of market share is monopoly, so competition commission wont be happy
about it and it will never agree with this merge.

                           Expand into new market

Non-food retailing now becoming a major part of Tesco strategy. As I said
before, Tesco is increasing competition and offering customers real value
and choice in all areas from sportswear to software, electricals to
spectacles. But still, I think Tesco didnt get into one very perspective
market  cars. Cars are very important in our time and there is a very high
demand for cars in the UK. I think for Tesco it is wont be very difficult
do get into this market, because Tesco is known as cheapest retailer in the
UK, therefore people will continue to by everything from Tesco, and cars as
well. But it could be easy and could be not, because currently there are
many different firms on this market, and what I think is that there are
could be some barriers to entry.

                  Rewards to staff  introduce a widespread

At the present time, many successful firms introducing new types of
rewarding to staff. What I suggest is that Tesco also should introduce a
widespread of rewarding to staff, for example employees could be awarded an
annual bonus, which they can take in cash, vouchers or shares. The
advantage of this type of payment is that if employees take shares, they
will be interested in good work of the company and if they take vouchers,
they will have to spend all salary in Tesco stores. So I think that it is
very good way of rewarding with all benefits to the company.

                    Affects of the alternative approaches

As I mentioned before, alternative approaches, suggested in A1 can affect
the functions of the organisation and how it achieves its objectives very
much, but they wont really affect structure of the organisation, because
Tesco now has very good organisation structure with very good consultative
and democratic management style.
If Tesco expands to Russia and merges Safeway, there are will be Operation
 Russia department in the organisation chart. More people will be
involved to work for Tesco, so Human Resources department will become
bigger. After expanding to Russia Tesco easy can expand to other countries
of Soviet Union such as Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Kirgiztan and so on. It also
will definitely help Tesco to prove itself as very strong multinational

                              List of resources
   1. The main resource was Tescos own web site: www.tesco.com.
   2. I asked Tesco for some information and they sent me it.
   3. Web site: www.bized.ac.uk
   4. Business for Vocational A level  book.
   5. Newspapers


Finance department

    . accountants
    . account technicians
    . account clerks

Records all financial data

Chases up slow payers

Collects payments from customers

Provides information to external bodies

Advises managers and budget holders

                 Monitors and analyses        financial data

                         Advises board of directors


                            Production activities

                             Finance department

Research and development department

                            Marketing department

Corporate objectives

Demand of labour

 . numbers of workers needed
 . skills required
 . location of employees

                              Supply of labour

. existing workforce
. skills shown through skills audit
. changes in productivity and working week

                            Human resources plan

This may require the use of one or more of the following:
    . recruitment
    . training
    . redundancy and redeployment

                              BUSINESS ACTIVITY




Human resources

Research & Development






                                 OR SERVICES


Chairman (non executive)

  Chief Executive

Deputy Chairman


Marketing Department

Finance Department

Retail Department

Commercial    Department

Distribution Department



                              Managing director

                      Research and development director

                              Finance director

                             Marketing director

                             Production director

                           Human resource director

                             Production manager

                                Plant manager

                           Quality control manager

                         Production control manager

                           Assistant plant manager



                            Supervisor: buildings

                           Supervisor: mechanical

                           Supervisor:  electrical

                               Section manager

                               Section manager

                               Section manager














                               (non executive)




                            Retail      Director

                           Commercial     Director

                            Distribution Director

                                   Head of























                         Dynamic/innovative culture


                           Customer driven culture


                                Task culture

                             Risk averse culture

                            Technological culture

                               Person culture

                              Negative culture

                              Positive culture

                             Competitive culture

Power culture.


   Board of directors

                            Marketing Department

                          Distribution  Department


                       Employees in Retail Department

                    Employees in Distribution Department

                      Employees in Marketing Department

  Mission statement

                             Business objectives

                     Divisional/departmental objectives





ref.by 20062024